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Battle of Hoshigaoka, 28 January 1333

Battle of Hoshigaoka, 28 January 1333



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Battle of Hoshigaoka, 28 January 1333

The battle of Hoshigaoka (28 January 1333) saw the revolt against the Shogunate spread onto Shikoku Island (Genko War, 1331-33).

Encouraged by Imperial successes on Honshu two local leaders on Skikoku Island (south of the Inland Sea), Doi Jiro and Tokuno Yasaburo, rose in support of Go-Daigo. Their revolt began in Iyo Province, in the north-west of the island. They then advanced south-east towards Tosa, on the southern side of the island.

The uprising was clearly too big for the Shogunate forces on Shikoku to deal with. The governor of Nagato Province (at the western end of Honshu) led a fleet given in the Taiheiki as containing 300 warships to Skikoku. His army came from Nagato and from the neighbouring Suo Province.

On the 12th day of the 1st month of 1333 (28 January 1333) the two armies clashed and the Imperial supporters were victorious. The fate of the governor of Nagato and his son was still unknown when the local supporters of the Shogunate sent a warning message to Kyoto.

After their victory the rebels moved north across the island towards the ports of Utatsu and Imahari and prepared to cross to Honshu and advance on Kyoto. They had been joined by most of the warriors of Shikoku, and were reported to be 6,000 strong.

The news of this defeat reached the Shogunate's headquarters in Kyoto, the Rokuhara, on the 4th day of the 2nd month (18 February 1333), just as they were trying to deal with an army that had advanced from Harima toward Kyoto, and was now only twenty leagues to the west.


Battle of Isandlwana

The Battle of Isandlwana (alternative spelling: Isandhlwana) on 22 January 1879 was the first major encounter in the Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom. Eleven days after the British commenced their invasion of Zululand in Southern Africa, a Zulu force of some 20,000 warriors attacked a portion of the British main column consisting of about 1,800 British, colonial and native troops and perhaps 400 civilians. [12] The Zulus were equipped mainly with the traditional assegai iron spears and cow-hide shields, [13] but also had a number of muskets and antiquated rifles. [14] [15]

Overall commander:
Ntshingwayo kaMahole Khoza
Subordinate commanders:
Vumindaba kaNthati
Mavumengwana kaNdlela

800 British regulars
400 Mounted Cavalry
100 European Colonial Troops
500 Natal Native Contingent

No. 2 Column:
British: 14
Native + Colonial: c. 511
No. 3 Column:
British: 734
Native + Colonial: c. 578
Total: 1,837 men

Zulu Impi:
about 20,000 [3]
c. 10,000 to 15,000 engaged
Reserve:

Over 1,300 killed: [4]
52 officers [5]
727 British regulars [5] [6]
476 others including: [5]
343 African Natal Native Contingent [7]
133 European Colonial troops [8]

The British and colonial troops were armed with the modern [16] Martini–Henry breechloading rifle and two 7-pounder mountain guns deployed as field guns, [17] [18] as well as a Hale rocket battery. Despite a vast disadvantage in weapons technology, [19] the Zulus ultimately overwhelmed [20] the British force, killing over 1,300 troops, including all those out on the forward firing line. The Zulu army suffered anywhere from 1,000 to 3,000 killed. [21] [22]

The battle was a decisive victory for the Zulus and caused the defeat of the first British invasion of Zululand. [23] The British Army had suffered its worst defeat against an indigenous foe equipped with vastly inferior military technology. [19] Isandlwana both resulted in the British taking a much more aggressive approach in the Anglo–Zulu War, leading to a heavily reinforced second invasion, [24] and the destruction of King Cetshwayo's hopes of a negotiated peace. [25]


'Charge of the Scots at Halidon Hill', 19 July 1333, (c1880)

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Selected Battles Fought by Scottish Highland Clans

Listed on this page, in alphabetical order, are battles mentioned in The Scottish Clans and Their Tartans (10th edition), by James Grant, published 1906 by W. & A. K. Johnstone, Limited, Edinburgh, which are featured in the Scottish Clan Genealogy section of this site. The battles are mentioned only by name in the articles, sometimes supplying a date and a specific person or persons who participated, without further details. On this page you will find a very brief synopsis of these battles, with recommended further reading, to aid anyone who may be constructing a timeline of their ancestors' involvement in these historic events.

The Battle of Alford (1645)

The Battle of Alford took place near the village of Alford, Aberdeenshire, on 2 July 1645, and was fought between Royalist forces led by James Graham, Marquess of Montrose, and forces of the Covenanter-dominated Scottish government commanded by William Baillie. This battle was fought primarily to tie up government troops that would otherwise been used in fighting the English Civil War. Clans involved include Farquharson, Forbes, Gordon, Graham, Leslie, and MacDonnell. Read more about the Battle of Alford at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Arbroath (1445)

The Battle of Arbroath was fought on 24 January 1445 at Arbroath, in Perthshire, Scotland. It was between rival claimants to the post of Baillie of the Regality, a position charged with dispensing justice throughout the jurisdiction of the monastery. Clans involved include Forbes, Gordon, Hamilton, Lindsay, Oliphant, and Seton. Read more about the Battle of Abroath at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Auldearn (1645)

The Battle of Auldearn was fought on 9 May 1645 in and around the village of Audearn in Nairnshire. It was fought between a Royalist army led by James Graham, Marquess of Montrose, and an army raised by the Covenanter-dominated Scottish government. Clans involved include Buchanan, Campbell, Gordon, Mackenzie, MacLennan, and Sutherland. Read more about the Battle of Auldearn at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Bannockburn (1314)

The Battle of Bannockburn was fought on 23 and 24 June 1314, was a victory of the army of Robert the Bruce, King of Scots, over the army of King Edward II of England in the First War of Scottish Independence. Read more about the Battle of Bannockburn at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Blairleine (Blar na Léine) (1544)

The Battle of Blairleine was fought on 15 July 1544 was fought near Loch Lochy in Lochaber, Scotland and is a classic example of clan warfare in the Highlands. Clans involved include Cameron, Fraser of Lovat, MacDonald, and MacIntosh. Read more about Blar na Léine at Historic Environment Scotland.

The Battle of Bothwell Bridge (1679)

The Battle of Bothwell Bridge was fought on 22 June 1679 at the bridge over the River Clyde in Hamilton near Bothwell in Lanarkshire, Scotland. It was fought between government troops and militant Presbyterian Covenanters. Read more about the Battle of Bothwell Bridge at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Corrichie (1562)

The Battle of Corrichie, was fought near Meikle Tap, near Aberdeen, Scotland on 28 October 1562, between the forces of George Gordon, 4th Earl of Huntly and chief of Clan Gordon, against the forces of Mary, Queen of Scots, led by James Stewart, 1st Earl of Moray. It was fought due to George Gordon having lost the earldom of Moray, which he considered his heritage, to Mary Queen of Scots' half-brother. Read more about the Battle of Corrichie at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Cromdale (1690)

The Battle of Cromdale was fought between General Thomas Buchan, commander-in-chief of the Jacobite forces in Scotland, and a larger government force under Sir Thomas Livingston, commander of the garrison at Inverness. It took place on 30 April and 1 May, 1690 on a hillside near the village of Cromdale in Inverness-shire. Read more about the Battle of Cromdale at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Culloden (1746)

The Battle of Culloden was fought on 16 April 1746, on Drummossie Moor, near Culloden, east of Inverness Scotland, between Scottish forces led by Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) and English forces led by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. It was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745. Clans involved include Boyd, Cameron, Chisholm, Drummond, Farquharson, Ferguson, Forbes, Fraser, Gordon, Grant, MacBean, MacDonald, MacDonald of Clanranald, MacDonnell, MacFie, MacGillivray, MacIntyre, MacKinnon, Mackintosh, MacLachlan, MacLaren, MacLean, MacLeod, MacMillan, Menzies, Murray, and Ogilvie, Ramsay, Robertson, and Wemyss. Read more about the Battle of Culloden at Wikipedia and The New World Encyclopedia.

The Battle of Dalrigh (1306)

The Battle of Dalrigh, also known as the Battle of Strathfillan, was fought on 11 August 1306 between the army of King Robert I of Scotland against the Clan MacDougall of Argyll who were allies of Clan Comyn and the English. It took place at the hamlet of Dalrigh near Tyndrum in Perthshire, Scotland. Read more about the Battle of Dalrigh at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Drumnacoub (1427)

The Battle of Drumnacoub was a Scottish clan battle fought between different factions of Clan MacKay some time between 1427 and 1433 near the Highland village of Tongue. Other clans involved include Sutherland and Murray. Read more about the Battle of Drumnacoub at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Dunbar (1296)

The battle of Dunbar was fought on 27 April 1296 near Dunbar, Scotland, and was a decisive English victory over Scotland in the the First War of Scottish Independence. Read more about the Battle of Dunbar (1296) at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Dunbar (1650)

The Battle of Dunbar was fought on 3 September 1650, near Dunbar, Scotland, and is considered one of the major battles of the Third English Civil War. It was fought between English Parliamentarian forces under Oliver Cromwell, and a Scottish army commanded by David Leslie, who was loyal to Charles II. Read more about the Battle of Dunbar (1650) at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Dupplin Moor (1332)

The Battle of Dupplin Moor was fought 10-11 August, 1332, near Perth, Scotland between supporters of the infant David II, son of Robert the Bruce, and rebels supporting the Baliol claim to the throne. It was a significant battle of the Second War of Scottish Independence. Read more about the Battle of Dupplin Moor at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Falkirk (1298)

The Battle of Falkirk was fought 22 July 1298 between the English army, led by King Edward I of England, and Scots led by William Wallace. It was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence. Read more about the Battle of Falkirk at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Falkirk Muir (1746)

The Battle of Falkirk Muir was fought on 17 January 1746 between the Jacobites under Prince Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) and a government army commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Hawley. Clans involved included Cunningham, Drummond, Munro, Murray, and Stewart. Read more about the Battle of Falkirk Muir at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Flodden (1513)

The Battle of Flodden Field was fought on 9 September 1513, in Northumberland England between an army of Scots under King James IV and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey. Clans involved include: Campbell, Douglas, Erskine, Graham, Hay, Henderson, Leslie, Lindsay, MacLean, Maxwell, Oliphant, Sinclair, Stewart, and Wallace. Read more about the Battle of Flodden at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Glen Fruin (1603)

The Battle of Glen Fruin was fought on 7 February 1603 at Glen Fruin, near Loch Lomond in Scotland. It was fought between Clan MacGregor and its allies, and Clan Colquhoun and its allies, after two MacGregor clansmen slaughtered a sheep on Colquhoun land. They were discovered, tried, and sentenced to death. The battle was fought to avenge them, resulting in 140-200 dead. According to tradition this number included a group of clerical students who had assembled to watch the battle and were slaughtered by the MacGregors. Read more about the Battle of Glen Fruin at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Glenlivet (1594)

The battle of Glenlivet was fought on 3 October 1594, at Allanreid in the historic county of Banffshire near Moray, Scotland, and is often seen as a religious conflict. It was fought between the Catholic forces of George Gordon, 1st Marquess of Huntly and Francis Hay, 9th Earl of Erroll, who were victorious over the Protestant forces of Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll. Clans involved include Cameron, Comyn, Forbes, Grant, MacGillivray, MacIntosh, MacLean, MacNeil, Murray, and Stewart. Read more about the Battle of Glenlivet at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Glen Shiel (1719)

The battle of Glen Shiel was fought on 10 June 1719 in the Scottish Highlands, between a Jacobite army and Spanish marines, and a government force of troops. It resulted in a government victory and an end to the 1719 Jacobite Rebellion. Read more about the Battle of Glen Shiel at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Guinard Strand (1598)

The Battle of Traigh Ghruinneart, also known as the Battle of Guinard Strand, and referenced as Lochguinard in the above-mentioned book, was fought on 5 August 1598, on the Isle of Islay over ownership of the island, between the clans MacDonald and MacLean. Additional clans involved include MacAlister and Campbell. Read more about the Battle of Guinard Strand at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Halidon Hill (1333)

The Battle of Halidon Hill was fought on 19 July 1333 during the Second War of Scottish Independence between Scottish forces led by Sir Archibald Douglas and the English forces of King Edward III of England, near Berwick, a disputed territory in the borderlands between England and Scotland. Clans involved include Bruce, Campbell, Douglas, Murray, Randolph, Ross, Stewart, and Sutherland. Read more about the Battle of Halidon Hill at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Harlaw (1431)

The Battle of Harlaw was fought on 24 July 1411 just north of Inverurie in Aberdeenshire. It was fought between Highland forces under Donald of Islay, (MacDonald, Lord of the Isles), and a Lowland army led by Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, to resolve competing claims to the Earldom of Ross, a large region of northern Scotland. Clans involved include Forbes, Leslie, Irvine, Keith, MacIntosh, and MacLean. Read more about the Battle of Harlaw at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Homildon Hill (1402)

The Battle of Homildon Hill was a conflict between the English, under Henry Percy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, and the Scots, under Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, on 14 September 1402 in Northumberland, England. Read more about the Battle of Homildon Hill at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Inverkeithing (1651)

The Battle of Inverkeithing was fought on 20 July 1651 in Inverkeithing, a port town and parish in Fife, Scotland. It was fought between an English Parliamentarian army led by John Lambert, and a Scottish Covenanter army led by Sir John Brown of Fordell on behalf of Charles II. Read more about the Battle of Inverkeithing at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Inverlochy (1431)

The Battle of Inverlochy was fought by a force of Highlanders led by Donald Balloch, and Royalist forces led by the Earls of Mar and Caithness at Inverlochy, near present-day Fort William. Read more about the Battle of Inverlochy at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Invernahavon (1370)

The Battle of Invernahavon was a Scottish clan battle between Clan Chattan and Clan Cameron, near the River Spey in Scotland. Sources vary on the year it took place in either 1370 or 1386. Read more about the Battle of Inverhavon at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Killiecrankie (1689)

The Battle of Killiecrankie was fought on 27 July 1689 near Killiecrankie, in Perthshire, Scotland. It took place during the First Jacobite Rising between a Jacobite force of Scots and Irish, and those of the newly arrived William of Orange's Scottish government forces. Clans involved include Cameron, Graham, MacKay, MacLean, Murray, Ramsay, and Stewart. Read more about the Battle of Killiecrankie at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Langside (1568)

The Battle of Langside was fought on 13 May 1568 between forces loyal to Mary Queen of Scots and forces acting in the name of her infant son James VI. Clans involved include Boyd, Campbell, Hamilton, Hay, Home, Lindsay, MacFarlane, Ross, and Stewart. Read more about the Battle of Langside at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Otterburn (1388)

The Battle of Otterburn was fought in August 1388 (conflicting sources state both the 5 August and the 19 of August) in Northumberland, England. It was fought between invading Scots, led by James, 2nd Earl of Douglas, and the border forces of England. Read more about the Battle of Otterburn at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Philiphaugh (1645)

The Battle of Philiphaugh was fought on 13 September 1645 near Selkirk in the Scottish Borders between the Royal army of James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose and the Covenanter army of Sir David Leslie. Other clans involved include Crawford, Gordon, and Hume. Read more about the Battle of Philiphaugh at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh (1547)

The Battle of Pinkie Cleugh was fought on 10 September 1547 on the banks of the River Esk near Musselburgh, Scotland. It was the last pitched battle between Scottish and English armies, and was a defeat for Scotland. Clans involved include Agnew, Blair, Brodie, Cunningham, Douglas, Erskine, Forrester, Gordon, Graham, Hamilton, Henderson, Innes, Irvine, Kennedy, Montgomery, Muir, Munro, Napier, Ogilvy, and Stewart. Read more about the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Sheriffmuir (1715)

The Battle of Sheriffmuir was fought on 13 November 1715, led by John Erskine, 6th Earl of Mar, standard-bearer for the Jacobite cause in Scotland, and British Government forces, led by John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll. It took place on the slopes of the Ochil Hills in Scotland, just inside the Perthshire border. Other clans involved include Douglas, Drummond, Lyon, and MacDonald of Clanranald. Read more about the Battle of Sheriffmuir at Wikipedia.

The Battle of Solway Moss (1542)

The Battle of Solway Moss was fought in November 1542 in Cumbria, England between Scottish forces led by Robert Lord Maxwell and Sir Oliver Sinclair, and English forces, led by Thomas, Lord Wharton, and Sir William Musgrave. Other clans involved include Cunningham, Douglas, Erskine, Hume, Kennedy, Kerr, and Oliphant. Read more about the Battle of Solway Moss at Wikipedia.

Wars of Montrose
The Battle of Worcester (1651)

The Battle of Worcester was fought on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the final battle of the English Civil War. Cromwell's army defeated King Charles II's army, of whom the vast majority were Scottish. Clans involved include Douglas, Drummond, Erskine, Grant, Hamilton, Hume, Innes, Keith, Leslie, MacGregor, MacKay, MacKinnon, MacLeod, MacNab, MacNeil, MacRae, Montgomery, Sinclair, and Wemyss. Read more about the Battle of Worcester at Wikipedia.


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Culture UK: World’s first tennis tournament – Wimbledon 1877 (9th) | St. Swithuns Day 862 (15th) | Folklore Year – Jul | Historic Birthdates – Jul |

Destinations UK: Bridgewater Canal 1761 (opened 17th July) | Plymouth Hoe 1588 (19th) | Cutty Sark – Fastest Ship on the Seas 1889 (25th) |

History of England: Battle Marston Moor 1644 (2nd) | Battle Lansdowne Hill 1643 (5th) | Death of King Edward I 1307 (7th) | Duke of Monmouth found 1685 (8th) | Lady Jane Grey 1553 (reigned 10-19th) | Battle Langport 1645 (10th) | Battle of Northampton 1460 (10th) | Great Fire of London 1212 (started 10-12th) | Battle Roundway Down 1643 (13th) | Spanish Armada 1588 (19th) | Great French Armada 1545 (sighted 19th) | Battle Shrewsbury 1403 (21st) | Ratcliffe Fire 1794 (23rd) | Introduction of Tobacco 1586 (27th?) | The Old Lady Threadneedle Street 1694 (founded 27th) | Dr Robert Hooke 1635 (28th) |

History of Scotland: Battle Alford 1645 (2nd) | Darien Scheme 1698 (set sail 12th) | Battle Halidon Hill 1333 (19th) | Jacobites & Two Pretenders 1745 (Bonnie Prince Charles landed 23rd) | Battle Harlaw 1411 (24th) | Battle Newburn 1640 (28th) |

History of Wales: Eisteddfod | Patagonia 1865 (settlers arrive 27th) |

History of Britain: Somme 1916 (1st) | Birth of NHS 1948 (5th) | Operation Husky – Gliders 1943 (9th) | Evacuation of Gibraltar 1940 (11th) | SS Great Britain launch 1843 (19th) | Battle Killiecrankie 1689 (27th) |

August 2021

Culture UK: Yorkshire Day (1st) | First performance – Rule Britannia 1740 (1st) | Alfred Lord Tennyson 1809 (birth 6th) | Thomas De Quincey 1785 (born 15th) | Pendle Witch Trial 1612 (17th) | Folklore Year – Aug | Historic Birthdates – Aug |

Destinations UK: Tower Subway 1870 (railway opens 2nd) | Blenheim Palace 1704 (date of battle 13th) |

History of England: Height of South Sea Bubble 1720 | Battle of Evesham 1265 (4th) | Henry VII lands army Pembrokeshire 1485 (7th) | Battle Maldon 991 (9th, poss 10th) | Royal Ascot 1711 (11th) | Disease in Medieval England (13th) | Peterloo 1819 (16th) | Pendle Witches 1612 (trial 17-19th) | Crowning of King Edward I 1274 (19th) | Battle Bosworth Field 1485 (22nd) | Origins of English Civil War 1642 (22nd) | Battle of Crecy 1346 (26th) – Longbow | Sir Robert Walpole 1676 (born 26th) | Capability Brown 1716 (baptised 30th) | Jack the Ripper 1888 (first victim 31st) |

History of Scotland: Battle Otterburn 1388 (5th) | Alexander Fleming 1881 (born 6th) | Battle Dupplin Moor 1332 (10-11th) | Sir Walter Scott 1771 (born 15th) | Keir Hardy 1856 (born 15th) | Duncan and MacBeth 1057 (MacBeth killed 15th) | Battle of Standard 1138 (22nd) | William Wallace 1305 (executed 23rd) |

History of Wales: Richard Wilson 1714 (born 1st) |Llanelli Railway Riots 1911 (19th) | Sir Henry Morgan 1688 (died 25th) |

History of Britain: Battle of the Nile 1798 (1st) | Smallpox Hospital Ships 1882 | Pathfinders Force 1942 – formation | Florence Lady Baker 1841 (born 6th) | 5th Battalion Norfolks 1915 (12th) | George IV 1762 (born 12th) | Battle of Peking 1900 (14-15th) | VJ Day 1945 (15th) | Battle Kilsyth 1645 (15th) | T. E. Lawrence 1888 (born 15th) | WW1 – Battle for Skies (19th) | WW1 – Western Front (23rd) | War 1812 (White House set on fire 24th) | Shortest War in History 1896 (26th) |

September 2021

Culture UK: Michaelmas (29th) | Folklore Year – Sept | Historic Birthdates – Sept |

Destinations UK: Golden Boy Pye Corner 1666 (6th) | Battle 1066 (28th) |

History of England: Pope Adrian IV (Nicholas Brakespear) dies 1159 (1st) | Great Fire London 1666 (2nd) & Survivors of Great Fire | Battle Worcester 1651 (3rd) | Max Woosnam 1892 (6th) | The Blitz 1940 (began 7th) | Battle of Poitiers 1356 (19th) – Longbow | Battle of Myton 1319 (20th) | Battle of Blore Heath 1459 (23rd) | Battle Rowton Heath 1645 (24th) | Battle Stamford Bridge 1066 (25th) | Francis Drake 1580 (circumnavigated globe 26th) | Norman Conquest 1066 (28th) | Sir Robert Peel 1829 (29th) |

History of Scotland: Battle of Dunbar 1650 (3rd) | Battle of Flodden 1513 (9th) | Battle Pinkie Cleugh 1547 (10th) | Mungo Park 1771 (born 11th) | Battle Homildon 1402 (14th) | Helen Duncan 1944 (released from prison 22nd) | Scottish Piper War Heroes (Laidlaw 25th) | Anglo-Scottish Wars 1290 (death of Margaret, Maid of Norway 26th) | William Topaz McGonagall 1902 (death 29th) | Nova Scotia 1621 (charter 29th) |

History of Wales: Roald Dahl 1916 (born 13th) |

History of Britain: Give us our 11 days 1752 (2nd) | King’s Speech 1939 (3rd) | First Opium War 1839 (4th) | Cleopatra’s Needle 1878 (erected 12th) | Battle Philiphaugh 1645 (13th) | Fighting Jack Churchill 1906 (born 16th) | Battle of Prestonpans (21st) | Mad Jack Mytton 1796 (born 30th) |

October 2021

Culture UK: A. A. Milne 1882 (born 18th) | Saint Ursula (feast day 21st) | History of Halloween (31st) | Folklore Year – Oct | Historic Birthdates – Oct |

Destinations UK: Greenwich Meridian – International Meridian Conference 1884 | Battle 1066 (14th) | French Cannons as Street Bollards (Trafalgar 21st) | Greenwich Meridian, Royal Observatory 1884 (22nd) |

History of England: Likely month for the Battle of Brunanburh 937 (early) | Battle Winceby 1643 (11th) | Ceremony of Quit Rents 1211 (after 11th) | Disease in Medieval England 1399 (13th) | Battle of Hastings (14th) | Battle of Byland 1322 (14th) | Feast day of Saint Ursula (21st) | Great London Tornado 1091 (23rd) | Battle and Phantom Battle of Edgehill 1642 (23rd) | War of Jenkins’ Ear 1739 (23rd) | Agincourt 1415 (25th) – Longbow | Alfred the Great 899 (death 26th) |

History of Scotland: Deacon William Brody 1788 (hanged 1st) | Battle of Byland 1322 (14th) | Battle of Nevilles Cross 1346 (17th) | Darien Scheme 1698 (landed 30th) | Halloween in Scotland (31st) |

History of Wales: Dylan Thomas 1914 (born 27th) |

History of Britain: Dying for Humbug 1858 | Crimean War 1853 (started 5th) | Rainhill Trials 1829 (6th – 14th) | Great Gateshead Fire 1854 (6th) | Second Opium War 1856 (start 8th) | The Luddites 1779 (9th) | Napoleon Exile St Helena 1815 (15th) | Fighting Jack Churchill 1906 (born 16th) | London Beer Flood 1814 (17th) | Lord Palmerston 1784 (born 20th) | Trafalgar Day 1805 (21st) | Admiral Collingwood 1805 (21st) | Nelson 1805 (21st) | Dedication of the WLA & WTC Memorial 2014 (21st) | Charge of Light Brigade 1854 (25th) | Captain Cook born 1728 (27th) | Wall Street – Great Depression 1929 (29th) | Battle of Nalapani – Gurkha War 1814 (started 31st) |

November 2021

Culture UK: Pantomime | Bonfire Night 1950’s (5th) | Martinmas (11th) | Stir-Up Sunday | George Eliot 1819 (22nd) | William Blake 1757 (born 28th) | Assocation Football 1872 (first internation match 30th) | Folklore Year – Nov | Historic Birthdates – Nov |

Destinations UK: Tyburn Tree Gallows 1783 (last used 3rd) | Newgate Prison 1724 (Jack Sheppard hanged 16th) | Pontcysyllte Aqueduct 1805 (opened 26th) | Eleanor Crosses 1290 (death 28th) | St Andrews (30th) |

History of England: Guy Fawkes 1605 (5th) | William of Orange lands at Brixham 1688 (5th) | Jack The Ripper 1888 (last murder 9th) | Mayflower sights dry land 1620 (9th) | William Hogarth 1697 (born 10th) | St Brice’s Day Massacre 1002 (13th) | Jack Sheppard 1724 (hanged 16th) | Love Life of Virgin Queen 1558 (17th) | St Edmund, the first patron saint of England (20th) |

History of Scotland: St Margaret 1093 (16th) | Gorbals Whisky Flood 1906 (21st) | Battle Solway Moss 1542 (24th) | St. Andrew (30th) & Stone of Destiny returned 1996 (30th) |

History of Wales: Dylan Thomas 1953 (death 9th) |

History of Britain: Thankful Villages | Recruitment to the Bantam battalions start 1914 | Spencer Perceval 1762 (born 1st) | Passchedale 1917 (6th) | Stanley – Livingstone 1871 (10th) | Battle Sheriffmuir 1715 (13th) | Gorbals Whisky Flood 1906 (21st) | Origin of Species 1859 (published 24th) Winston Chirchill 1874 (born 30th) |

December 2021

Culture UK: Christmas Crackers | Darker side of Christmas | The Christmas Tree | Harris’s List 1700s (sold each Christmas) | Nicholas Brakespear elected pope 1154 (4th) | St. Nicholas Day circa 343 (6th) | Ada Lovelace 1815 (born 10th) | Dandy comic 1937 (first published 4th) | Jane Austen 1775 (born 16th) | George Eliot 1891 (born 22nd) | Old Glory & Cutty Wren (26th) | Rudyard Kipling 1865 (born 30th) | Folklore Year – Dec | Historic Birthdates – Dec |

Destinations UK: Rochester | Execution Dock 1830 (last used 16th) | Tyneham 1943 (19th) | Miracles St Thomas Becket 1170 (29th) |

History of England: Tudor Christmas | Medieval Christmas | Anglo-Saxon Christmas | The Life of Charles Dickens | St Edmund born 841 (25th) | Sweyn Forkbeard 1013 (declared king 25th) | Thomas Becket 1170 ((murdered 29th (850 years)), also King Henry II | East India Company 1600 (founded 31st) | Lancashire Cotton Famine 1862 (support against slavery 31st) |

History of Scotland: James Bruce 1730 (born 14th) | Thomas Cochrane 1775 (born 14th) | Eilean Mor 1900 (26th) | Hogmanay (31st) |

History of Wales: Christmas Traditions of Wales |

History of Britain: Georgian Christmas | Victorian Christmas | A World War II Christmas | A 1960s Christmas | Dickin medal first awarded 1943 (2nd) | Agatha Christie disappears 1926 (3rd) | Barnbow Lasses 1916 (5th) | Zulu War 1878 (11th) | William Thomson – Lord Kelvin 1907 (died 17th) | Lewes Snow Drop 1836 (27th) | George Cayley 1773 (born 27th) | Vera Brittain 1893 (born 29th) |


English Historical Fiction Authors

There is a beautiful song, written by Steve McDonald and performed by him and Hollie Smith. It’s called Fallen Flowers and it features the most sublime cello playing. It is not an easy song to listen to, especially if you are, like me, a mother. It talks about a young man who lies dying after the Battle of Halidon Hill and what his mother wouldn't give just to have him back again. The images it evokes are haunting. So, when I found myself near Berwick-upon-Tweed recently, I visited the battlefield, and set out to find out what I could about the battle.

The site itself is bleak, even on a sunny day. And yes, it is definitely a hill, rising some 600 ft above sea level. The battle took place in July, 1333, during the second war of Scottish independence, when the forces of Edward III of England fought the Scots, although this wasn’t a straightforward case of England V Scotland, for Edward had ridden north to support the claim of one Scots king against another.

Edward III, having overthrown Roger Mortimer, was free to turn his attention to Scotland where, just four years earlier, Robert Bruce had died, leaving as his heir his seven year old son, David II. The Bruces were not the only ones who laid claim to the Scottish throne, and Edward III supported the rival claim of Edward Balliol. Balliol was crowned, but deposed very soon afterwards, fleeing to Carlisle from where he sent an SOS to the English king.

The Scottish chronicler Walter Bower was vehement in his condemnation of ‘Edward de Windsor king of England’, whom he described as a ‘breaker of oaths and violator of his own pledge’ who ‘disregarded the promise of eternal peace … and promised speedy help, [breaking] ‘the bonds of peace [and assembling] a very large army against his brother-in-law King David.’ (At the tender age of four, David had been married to Joan, daughter of Edward II.)

Edward III responded to Balliol’s call for help by marching his forces to Berwick where he besieged the town. The Scots, led by Sir Archibald Douglas, meanwhile, marched down and occupied Tweedmouth. The townsfolk of Berwick, represented by Governor Anthony Seton, promised to surrender if the town had not been relieved by 11 July. When the Scots managed to destroy a bridge over the River Tweed, Sir William Keith took a small contingent into the town and rescinded the promise of surrender. Unfortunately, Edward III had taken hostages, and he began to hang them, starting with Seton’s own son, Thomas, hung from a gallows in full view of the town. He vowed to hang two more for every day the town continued to defy him. A new surrender agreement was reached.

Douglas, who in the meantime had gone to raid Bamburgh, where Edward's queen, Phillipa was ensconced, waited until the eleventh hour before surrender was due. It was a bad decision. Approaching from the northwest, he had to position his troops high above Berwick at a place beyond Halidon Hill, known as Witches’ Knowe. He then faced the task of leading his troops downhill while Edward, holding Halidon Hill, controlled the surrounding area. Had the Scots made any attempt to enter Berwick, Edward would have seen. The view from the hill towards the Tweed is a clear one, as this picture, taken on a hazy day, still shows.

The English army stood between the Scots and Berwick, and the Scots had to cross a marsh to get to them.

Boggy terrain and English archers made for a deadly combination. It was said that the Scots turned their faces away for the storm of arrows was like sleet.

Douglas was killed, the fleeing Scots were pursued by the English on horseback, and the following day, Berwick surrendered.

If contemporary accounts can be believed, the Scottish losses included ten earls, sixty-nine barons, 105 ‘knights-batchelors', 4,250 men-at-arms, 63,200 ordinary folk, and 5,000 residents of Berwick and the surrounding area.

The losses were certainly catastrophic, not just in terms of numbers but because those who could mount an effective challenge to the might of the English army were now either dead, or in hiding. Edward III, victorious, reimposed Balliol as king.

In October, Edward Balliol held a parliament in Perth. At this parliament, he reversed many of the land grants made by Robert Bruce. Edward III left him alone but Balliol’s position as puppet king was not a free one. He had to pay homage to the English king and grant him all the English-occupied southern shires of Scotland. Edward’s attention soon turned towards France and Balliol, whose decision to reverse the grants of Robert Bruce had been unpopular to say the least, was left increasingly isolated.

The young David Bruce grew to adulthood in exile in Normandy, living at Chateau Gaillard with his wife, Joan, and returning to Scotland in 1341. He did not find it easy to re-establish himself. He gained strength, though, and in 1346 he advanced his troops towards Durham. His army was caught out at Neville’s Cross where Balliol fought for the English. David was wounded and captured. The complicated political situation was to rumble on and on - enough to be the subject of at least one other, completely separate article!

A visit to Berwick shows that the town is still partly encased by sturdy defensive walls. These are not the medieval walls, however, which originally spanned a greater area of the town. These walls, when built, actually cut the town in half and were built in the sixteenth century. Peace between the two countries it seems, was never assured.

Halidon Hill was only one of a vast number of battles between Scots and English. What of those losses? Some estimate the number of Scots lining up against the English at 14,000, with the English fielding some 10,000. Other sources put the numbers of casualties anywhere between 20,000 to 40,000, while yet different figures suggest that somewhere between 18,000 and 25,000 Scots took part in the battle.

It is difficult, even when standing on top of the hill, to envisage anything like this number of men fighting for their very lives at this spot. I’d venture to say that Halidon Hill isn’t one of the better-known battle sites. Yet, in visiting such sites, it is also hard to forget that, in amongst however many men who were truly fighting that day, each man who died was mourned by someone. The song I mentioned at the beginning of this post helps to bring home the tragedy of any conflict and I’m glad to say that at least part of this site remains free from crops and it is marked with a memorial stone.

[all photos by and copyright of Annie Whitehead]

Annie Whitehead is an author and historian, and a member of the Royal Historical Society. She has written three award-winning novels set in Anglo-Saxon Mercia. Her history of Mercia, from Penda the pagan king to the last brave stand of the earl of Mercia against the Conqueror, Mercia: The Rise and Fall of a Kingdom, is published by Amberley.


By 1590, only the Hojo clan held out against Hideyoshi. To finish them off, he advanced toward their greatest fortress at Odawara.

The Hojo knew if Odawara was destroyed then they were finished. They called in all their troops and followers from other castles to protect it. 50,000 men assembled to defend their position.

The attackers had even more. 200,000 men clogged the roads and surrounding countryside. Seeing an assault would be costly and futile, they spent most of the siege starving out the defenders. While they waited, the Samurai were entertained and grew vegetables until the occupants of the castle surrendered.


Military conflicts similar to or like Battle of Happrew

The Siege of Carlisle took place from 22 July to 1 August 1315, during the First War of Scottish Independence, near the town of Carlisle, in Cumbria, England. Following victory at Bannockburn in 1314, Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland, launched a series of raids into Northern England. Wikipedia

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The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. The First War (1296–1328) began with the English invasion of Scotland in 1296, and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh–Northampton in 1328. Wikipedia

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'Charge of the Scots at Halidon Hill', 19 July 1333, (c1880)

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Justine - 11/24/2003

Apocalypse, KJV, Holy Bible, Scriptures, Revelation, last days, dictatorship, empire, wars, Christianity, Iraq war, war on Iraq, United States, soldiers, Americans, Baghdad, bombing, enemy, deaths, battles, bloody, truth, aggression, suffering, Arabs, civilians, military, army, kill, murders, troops, leaders, murderers, hell, lake of fire, innocents, history, nations, faith, patriotism, churches, moral law, resistance, priests, Christians, weapons, mass destruction, awakening, leadership, people, democracy, invasion, propaganda, mass media, government, peace, prestige, war machine, power, lies, embedded journalists, military, battlefields, conspiracy, betrayal,history, deal, pact, died, Fall, superpower, globalism, globalization, world, hidden secrets, antiwar movement

Trojan Man - 10/2/2003

Bush is a flaming PoS. Latex crayons? Semipermiable cheese grater? Whats up my nigga!

Kevin Fussell Cook - 4/5/2003

We will still be counting the resulting costs from this short war and it's effects a half century from now. Those who run against Bush will delude themselves, and go promising to undo the damage. (After all, who wants to vote for a pessimist?) But, the damage will not be so easily undone. But then, according to Bush, another war and some more tax cuts should fix everything (logic right out of the Mad Hatter's tea party).


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