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Wall Relief, Nimrud

Wall Relief, Nimrud


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Lion Hunt Relief from Nimrud

This Lion Hunt Relief came from a wing of Northwest Palace of the Royal Residence of King Ashurbanipal in Nimrud, present-day Iraq.

The relief shows the king, standing on a light hunting chariot, which is guided by a charioteer and pulled three horses. Three arrows have hit the lion.

The King once again aims an arrow at the lion. The lion has turned its head back and seems to roar its attacker in pain.

The royal lion hunt is a symbol of the King overcoming the dangers and challenges to the Assyrian state by its ruler.

Particularly noteworthy is in the initially colored bas-relief of detail, such as in hunting chariots and weapons, as well as in the richly decorated horses with their teeth.

This section of the relief is only the lower part of a three-walled wall relief, the total height of which was about 2.30 m.

While the upper register with another narrative relief is lost, only a few remnants of two lines of cuneiform have been preserved from the middle register, which bore the king’s standard inscription.

An almost identical representation, now in the British Museum in London, shows the bow-shooting king, who has just killed a male lion.

Nimrud has been one of the primary sources of Assyrian sculpture, including the famous palace reliefs.

A series of the distinctive Assyrian shallow reliefs were removed from the palaces, and sections are now found in several museums, in particular, the British Museum and the Pergamon Museums.

These show scenes of hunting, warfare, ritual, and processions.

There are about two dozen sets of scenes of lion hunting in surviving Assyrian palace reliefs.

Neo-Assyrian palaces were very extensively decorated with such reliefs, carved in shallow reliefs on slabs that are mostly of gypsum alabaster, which was plentiful in northern Iraq.

Other animals were also shown being hunted, and the main subject for narrative reliefs was the war campaigns of the king who built the palace. Other reliefs showed the king, his court, and “winged genie” and lamassu protective minor deities.


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Wall Relief, Nimrud - History

Gypsum wall panel relief: one of series of wall panels with disconnected scenes above is part of a battle and below the royal chariot waits behind Tiglath-pileser III who was shown on another panel. The band at the bottom of the upper fragment bears two columns of inscription.When joined with fragment BM. 132306, the complete scene shows the king&rsquos chariot, led by two men, moving ⇨. In the richly ornamented chariot stands the charioteer holding the reins and a whip. The horses, with the usual elaborately decorated trappings, are held by two bearded men, wearing a fringed tunic and a belt in which hangs the sword. In front of them stands a beardless officer apparently carrying the king&rsquos weapons, the bow, its upper end shaped as a duck&rsquos head, a quiver, and a mace.

Date 728BC Found in Tiglath-pileser III&rsquos Central Palace Nimrud

Height: 231 centimetres (upper fragment) Height: 233 centimetres (lower fragment) Width: 232 centimetres


Reliefs along a wall in the city of Nimrud.

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The genies on the move (2): unwanted gifts

With an over-abundance of fabulous material at the British Museum's disposal, Layard was free to consider alternative recipients for a portion of the reliefs, especially if such gifts would benefit his project further.

At the end of that same letter to Canning quoted above, Layard added:

PS I mentioned to your Excellency before leaving Constantinople  PGP  that there were several fine bas-reliefs which had carefully reburied to preserve them from injury in case you should wish to have some specimens from Nimroud. There are now frequent opportunities of sending sculptures to England, and I only await your orders on the subject. I can select as many as your Excellency wishes and I will take care to have them sent to any place which you point out. The colossal figures are the best preserved and most interesting and should you still wish to present any sculptures to Eton College  TT  there are either detached figures or groups which will form very conspicuous objects in any Museum.

Canning finally wrote back, almost a year later, on 5 March 1851:

I willingly and thankfully avail myself of your offer, provided the objects be of sufficient importance. [. ] The sculptures should be sent, if I have them at all, as might be presented to the University of Cambridge, for instance, or at least to one of its Colleges [. ] if I did not wish to keep them for my own house.

A few weeks later, on 15 April, he changed his mind:

I wonder if you could get me two nice heads, a King and a Eunuch  TT  , the same as you got for [Lord] Cowley! I should like to have some monuments of Nineveh!

But by then it was too late to scale down the gift, for by the time the letter reached Layard, he had chosen a full-body king and genie as befitting the stately home of a grand patron or, perhaps, the great dining hall of an English seat of learning. His men packed them up and sent them by raft down the Tigris to Basra  PGP  , as part of a much larger shipment of finds destined for the British Museum which finally docked in London early in 1851.

Once the British Museum had checked that Canning's king and genie were "exactly similar to others already in the Museum", the sculptures were free to go to their new home. But it seems that Canning no longer wanted them—they were not the heads he had specified—so they were sent to Eton College as originally suggested. But after three-quarters of a century even Eton decided it had no need or room for them, and donated them to the Fitzwilliam Museum in 1927. Coincidentally or not, at that time Eton's provost was the same M.R. James who had been keeper of the Fitz in 1908 when George Wainwright had donated his genies. Perhaps he had it in mind to buy them together.


Chariot Group

Carved relief from the ancient Assyrian royal palace of Nimrud (near Mosul in modern Iraq) detail of one of the many relief panels that once lined the walls now in the British Museum.

Many of these scenes depict the hunting of animals and are as cruel as they are beautifully rendered this often makes me question my enjoyment of these stunning artworks when beautiful animals like lions and horses are seen to be suffering in them.

The site of Nimrud itself was attacked by Daesh barbarians in mid 2015 destroying 3000 years of history and leaving the site and its priceless sculptures over 80% destroyed.

Nimrud was liberated earlier this week after two years of mistreatment and destruction and the scale of the disaster is now becoming clear. We must therefore be thankful that most of the major sculptures were long ago moved from the site to other museums in Baghdad, London (which holds the largest collection of sculptures and reliefs) and elsewhere and have thus survived this horrific onslaught against ancient Assyria. Significant fragments appear to have survive on the site and have been photographed since its liberation, and hopefully more will be recovered and identified in the coming weeks.

What now for Nimrud? The site is virtually destroyed, reconstructing it to its previous condition will be extremely difficult using just the remaining fragments. Perhaps a better option would be to bring together casts or 3D scanned and printed exact copies of all the pieces that have been dispersed to foreign museums, reuniting all the great sculptures of Nimrud with what little survives on site and incorporate them in a reconstruction of at least part the palace complex. This way not only could the Daesh barbarity be undone to some extent but Nimrud would rise again more magnificent than before.

I made a gallery of the site as it remained until the recent Daesh occupation of northern Iraq made all art and culture a target for its barbarity.


Для показа рекламных объявлений Etsy по интересам используются технические решения сторонних компаний.

Мы привлекаем к этому партнеров по маркетингу и рекламе (которые могут располагать собранной ими самими информацией). Отказ не означает прекращения демонстрации рекламы Etsy или изменений в алгоритмах персонализации Etsy, но может привести к тому, что реклама будет повторяться чаще и станет менее актуальной. Подробнее в нашей Политике в отношении файлов Cookie и схожих технологий.


Asia, West Asia, Arabian Peninsula, Iraq

Course History

ANTH 39, Archaeology of the Middle East, Jesse Casana, Fall 2019

ARTH 01, Bodies and Buildings, Nicola Camerlenghi and Steven Kangas, Fall 2019

SART 23, Figure Sculpture, Leslie Fry, Spring 2019

JWST 7, Archaeologists, Artists, and Adventures: The Rediscovery of the Holy Land , Steven Kangas, Winter 2016

ANTH 12.2, The Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Jesse Casana, Fall 2015

ARTH 1, Bodies and Buildings: Introduction to the History of Art in the Ancient World and the Middle Ages, Jane Carroll, Steven Kangas, Fall 2015

ARTH 20, The Art of Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East, Steven Kangas, Spring 2015

ARTH 7.8, Seven Wonders of the Ancient World and their Modern Successors, Steven Kangas, Spring 2015

ANTH 8, The Rise and Fall of Prehistoric Civilizations, Deborah Nichols, Fall 2014

REL 4, JWST 4, Religion of Israel: The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), Peter Lanfer, Fall 2014

ARTH 1, Bodies and Buildings, Steven Kangas, Nicola Camerlenghi, Fall 2014

THEA 15, Theater & Society I: Classical and Medieval Performance, Laura Edmondson, Fall 2014

ANTH 12.2, Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Daniel Potts, Spring 2014

ARTH 20, The Art of Ancient Egypt and the Ancient Near East, Steven Kangas, Winter 2014

WRIT 5, Imaging Power: The Development of a Western Vocabulary of Rulership, Jane Carroll, Winter 2014

JWST 7, Archaeologists, Artists, and Adventurers: The Rediscovery of the Holy Land, Steven Kangas, Winter 2014

ARAB 31, Advanced Arabic, El Mostafa Ouajjani, Fall 2013

ANTH 8, The Rise and Fall of Prehistoric Civilizations, Deborah Nichols, Fall 2013

ARTH 1, Steve Kangas, Ada Cohen, Bodies and Buildings: Introduction to the History of Art in the Ancient World and the Middle Ages, Fall 2013

ANTH 12.2, The Archaeology of the Ancient Near East, Jason Herrmann, Spring 2013

REL 4, JWST 4, Religion of Israel: The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament), Peter Lanfer, Spring 2013

ARTH 20, Art of Ancient Egypt and the Near East, Steven Kangas, Spring 2013

REL 81, Dickinson Distinguished Scholar Seminar: Orientalism and the Origins of Religion, Susannah Heschel, Fall 2012

ARTH 1, Bodies and Buildings, Ada Cohen, Steven Kangas, Fall 2012

JWST 41, Cities of the Biblical World, Steven Kangas, Fall 2012

ARTH 82, History of Museums and Collecting, Joy Kenseth, Spring 2012

Exhibition History

Picture Gallery, Reed Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1857-1860s stored in a small closet in Reed Hall, 1860s-1880s on display again, 1880s-1895.

Global Cultures at the Hood: Ancient to Premodern, Gene Y. Kim Gallery, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, January 26. 2019.

Gene Y. Kim, Class of 1985, Gallery, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, November 15, 1985-present.

College Museum, Butterfield Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1896-1928.

Carpenter Hall, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire, 1929-1985.

Publication History

William Scheller, Amazing Archaeologists and Their Finds, Minneapolis: The Oliver Press, Inc., 1994, ill. p. 25

Judith Lerner, Journey's End: The Assyrian Reliefs at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire: Trustees of Dartmouth College, September, 1985, p. 30-31, ill. p. 30.

Georgia Croft, Back on the Wall (where they belong), Hanover, New Hampshire: Trustees of Dartmouth College, 1985, p. 31-33.

Ada Cohen and Steven E. Kangas, Assyrian Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: A Cultural Biography, Hanover, New Hamphire: Trustees of Dartmouth College, 2010, p. 75-77, plates 4.1-4.2

Provenance

The reliefs were excavated by Sir Austen Henry Layard (1817-1895), at Nimrud, Iraq, about 1845-47 offered to Missionaries by Henry Creswicke Rawlinson (1810-1895), a political agent of the British in Baghdad, about 1853 Professor Oliver Payson Hubbard, Class of 1873h (1809-1900), Chemistry Professor and College Librarian asked Reverend Austin Hazen Wright (1811-1865), Class of 1830 (Medical missionary stationed in Oroomiah, Persia) to acquire some reliefs for Dartmouth College, 1853 the Dartmouth reliefs were selected and packed by Reverend Henry Lobdell, M.D. (1827-1855) at Nimrud, about 1854-55 travelled from Nimrud to Mosul on mules travelled on camels across the Syrian desert to the Mediterranean at Alexandretta (Iskenderun) transported to a sailing vessel to Beirut travelled on the steamer "Daniel Webster" to Boston travelled by rail to Hanover, New Hampshire arrived on December 11, 1856.

This record was created from historic documentation and may not have been reviewed by a curator it may be inaccurate or incomplete.

Noticed a mistake? Have some extra information about this object? Contact Us


Для показа рекламных объявлений Etsy по интересам используются технические решения сторонних компаний.

Мы привлекаем к этому партнеров по маркетингу и рекламе (которые могут располагать собранной ими самими информацией). Отказ не означает прекращения демонстрации рекламы Etsy или изменений в алгоритмах персонализации Etsy, но может привести к тому, что реклама будет повторяться чаще и станет менее актуальной. Подробнее в нашей Политике в отношении файлов Cookie и схожих технологий.


Watch the video: Mural art wall relief (September 2022).


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