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Runes are letters in the runic alphabets of Germanic-speaking peoples, written and read most prominently from at least c. 160 CE onwards in Scandinavia in the Elder Futhark script (until c. 700 CE) and the Younger Futhark - which illuminated the Viking Age (c. 790-1100 CE) - as well as in England and Frisia in the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (also known as Anglo-Frisian Futhorc) writing system. In England, runes were in use from the 5th century CE until perhaps the turn of the 11th century CE, while in Scandinavia the use of runes extended well into the Middle Ages and beyond.

Designed to be inscribed first into wood and metal, during the Viking Age large amounts of inscribed runestones were erected predominantly throughout Scandinavia; these runestones, despite being tough to decipher, are of absolutely critical value to us, as they are the only written source contemporary to this period. Runes are found in areas with a history of Germanic-speaking peoples, from Iceland to Scandinavia, through England, through Central Europe to Constantinople – basically places Germanic-speaking people on occasion called home plus any place the Vikings touched.

How Runes Are Read

Runes are generally made up of vertical lines – one or more – with 'branches' or 'twigs' jutting out diagonally (and very occasionally horizontally) upwards, downwards or in a curve from them. They can be written both from left to right and from right to left, with asymmetrical characters being flipped depending on the direction of writing. Each rune, of which major and minor versions existed, represents a phoneme (speech sound) and had a name, made up of a noun, that started (and in one case, ended) with the sound the rune was mainly associated with. Lots of regional and temporal variation existed in the shapes of the letters.

Origins & Development

Variation had skyrocketed by 700 CE when Elder Futhark diverged into the reduced-character Younger Futhark in Scandinavia & the more elaborate Anglo-Saxon Futhorc across Britain & Frisia.

The origins of the runic script are shrouded in a decent amount of mystery. The earliest inscription that is without a doubt runic is the one reading harja (possibly meaning “comb”, or “warrior”) on the Vimose comb from Denmark, dated to c. 160 CE, which uses runes so confidently and maturely that scholars feel it must result from at least a hundred years' experience in writing in runes. How exactly this tradition was pulled out of the hat, however, is subject to much debate and speculation. Inspiration from both the Greek and Roman alphabets, as well as a northern Italic or even Danish origin, has been suggested. The Greek route is perhaps the most likely in light of the resemblances in script, and a variation of a Greek alphabet – Greek was unstandardised between c. 700-400 BCE – may have reached Germanic speakers by way of a 'middle-man' group perhaps made up of eastern Europeans. Norse mythology itself offers us a fun alternative, too, in depicting the god Odin gaining the knowledge of the runes after sacrificing himself to himself and hanging on the “windy tree” for nine nights with no food or drink (Hávamál, 139-140).

Either way, by 500 CE use of the runic script had fanned out across the Germanic world – from Norway, Sweden, Denmark and England to outposts in Germany, Russia, Poland and Hungary – and recorded a variety of Germanic languages. The main runic scripts that eventually came into being were:

  • Elder Futhark (at least c. 160-700 CE)
  • Younger Futhark (c. 700 - c. 1200 CE)
  • Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (also Anglo-Frisian Futhorc, c. 5th century - c. 1000 CE)
  • Medieval Futhork (fully formed c. 13th century CE).

Right from the earliest runic remains we have found, variation is present, which ties in with the fact that the runic alphabet is obviously not one-on-one with a language, but was used in various contexts to write a multitude of Germanic languages spoken across a large geographic area. Shapes of runes may vary, as may order, usage, medium, and layout, resulting from, for example, regional, social or chronological differences. There is thus no such thing as a standardised runic alphabet. Variation had skyrocketed by 700 CE, around which time a divergence can be seen from the previously fairly uniform Elder Futhark to the reduced-character Younger Futhark in Scandinavia which would later crystallise into Medieval Futhork, and the more elaborate Anglo-Saxon Futhorc across Britain and Frisia.

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Elder Futhark

Elder Futhark (also Elder Fuþark – þ being the 'th' sound in English 'thin' – or older Fuþark/Futhark) is the earliest classified runic script and was used until c. 700 CE in the Germanic world. Counting 24 characters and being surprisingly uniform, it is named after the first six characters in the alphabet (f-u- þ (th)-a-r-k). The runes are grouped together in three rows of eight, each group being called an ætt (pl. ættir), and each rune was named after things that start (or in one case, end) with that sound. Although preserved manuscripts from the 9th and 10th centuries CE have given us the names of the Younger Futhark and Anglo-Saxon runes, no such luxury is awarded us for Elder Futhark. However, based mostly on the Younger Futhark names supplemented with Anglo-Saxon and even Gothic, the Elder Futhark rune-names have been reconstructed to the best of our modern-day ability.

Elder Futhark was used to write Proto-Germanic, Proto-Norse, Proto-English, and Proto-High German – thus, geographically quite widely spread – and survives today in just under 400 inscriptions (found so far), most of which show substantial wear and tear and are only partly readable. It is likely this number only represents a fraction of the real total; the rest must be lost in time and space. They are initially found on wood – which of course does a poor job at standing the test of time – and metal in the form of names. Popular surfaces were military equipment, coins, and jewellery such as bracteates, brooches or combs, and the typically Scandinavian runestones, some of which were in Elder Futhark as opposed to the much more frequently represented later Younger Futhark. Although Scandinavia, northern Germany and eastern Europe were the earliest homes to such items, after c. 400 CE England, the Netherlands, and southern Germany joined the club. Because they focus mostly on ownership and show no visible connection to society at any greater level, runic writing in societies up to c. 700 CE is assumed to not to have had a central function.

Despite Elder Futhark's largely uniform nature, variation existed too, though, and it is important to realise the rune-row generally presented for the Elder Futhark today is only a main line. Here follows the most commonly given Elder Futhark rune-row, starting with the rune, its transliteration, its inferred (Proto-Germanic) name and the meaning of that name:

  • ᚦ þ ('th') *þurisaz “giant”
  • ᚨ a *ansuz “one of the Æsir (gods)”
  • ᚱ r *raiðō “ride”/”journey”
  • ᚲ k *kaunan “boil”/”blister” (or maybe “torch”)
  • ᚷ g *gebō “gift”
  • ᚹ w *wunjō “joy”
  • ᚺ h *hagalaz “hail” (the precipitation)
  • ᚾ n *nauðiz “need”/“emergency”/”desperation”
  • ᛁ I *īsaz “ice”
  • ᛃ j *jēra “year”, but typically “harvest”/”good harvest”
  • ᛈ p *perðō? “pear tree”? (unclear)
  • ᛇ ï/æ? *eihaz/ei(h)waz “yew tree” (but very confusing attestation)
  • ᛉ z *algiz? “elk“
  • ᛊ s *sōwilō “sun”
  • ᛏ t *tīwaz/*teiwaz “Týr” (the god)
  • ᛒ b *berkanan “birch”
  • ᛖ e *ehwaz “horse”
  • ᛗ m *mannaz “man”
  • ᛚ l *laguz “lake” (or maybe “leek”)
  • ᛜ ŋ ('ng') *ingwaz “Ing” (/Yngvi, another name of the god Freyr)
  • ᛞ d *dagaz “day”
  • ᛟ o *ōþala/*ōþila “inherited property”/”possession”

Younger Futhark

Younger Futhark headlines in the big bang in runic inscriptions after 700 CE throughout Viking Age Scandinavia, where it is found on runestones which dot the landscape.

After c. 700 CE, in Scandinavia, Elder Futhark was adapted into the Younger Futhark (or Younger Fuþark) script used for writing Old Norse, the language of the Viking Age. Eight of the original 24 characters were ditched and many others were simplified or changed shape, as well as more variety cropping up in general. Vitally, it is the medium of our only written (Scandinavian) Viking Age sources. The runes that were dropped are ᚷ, ᚹ, ᛇ, ᛈ, ᛖ, ᛜ, ᛟ, and ᛞ - transliterated as g, w, ï/æ, p, e, ŋ, and d. The ættir, or runic groups, known from Elder Futhark, remained in place, now becoming groups of six, six, and four, respectively. In Younger Futhark, runes had more than one possible sound attached to them, specifically no longer making clear in writing the distinction between voiced and unvoiced consonants such as k and g, which were both written with the rune ᚴ. Vowels, too, learned to share, their value having to be gleaned from the context they were found in. This makes this runic script quite difficult to read (for us, today, at least).

It seems this new script was adopted in a lightning-quick fashion, perhaps due to a deliberate effort, but probably at least influenced by changes in the language or in sounds. Michael Barnes tells us how,

…by the beginning of the eight century all, or virtually all, rune-carvers were using the same sixteen runes – a remarkable example of unity in the apparent absence of a central authority to promote it. But that was as far as the unity went. When it came to the realisation of many of the sixteen runes, a much more open policy prevailed. Some carvers experimented with runic form, simplifying many characters. Others resisted change, or were unaware of it. Different traditions developed. (63)

In Denmark, for instance, a “long-branch” version of the runic script was preferred, whereas Norway and Sweden stuck to “short-twig”, and the Hälsingland area in Sweden even developed a set of runes – Hälsinge/staveless runes - missing the main staves (except in the i-rune) in a zealous simplification. The rune-row given for Younger Futhark below, then, is a composite showing the most common forms across the board; the row starts with the rune, then its transliteration, its (Old Norse) name and the meaning of that name:

  • ᚠ f/v fé “wealth”/“cattle”
  • ᚢ u/w, y, o, ø úr “slag from iron production”/”rain(storm)”
  • ᚦ ᚦ, ð ('th') ᚦurs ('thurs') “giant”
  • ᚬ o, æ áss/óss “Æsir”/”estuary”
  • ᚱ r reið “ride”/(“vehicle”)
  • ᚴ k, g kaun “ulcer”/”boil”
  • ᚼ h hagall “hail”
  • ᚾ n nauðr “need”/”threat”/”emergency”
  • ᛁ I, e ísa/íss “ice”
  • ᛅ a, æ ár “year”, typically “good year”/”good harvest”
  • ᛋ s sól “sun”
  • ᛏ t, d Týr “Týr” (the god), also used for any god
  • ᛒ b, p björk/bjarkan/bjarken “birch”
  • ᛘ m maðr “man”/”person”
  • ᛚ l lǫgr (lögr) “lake” or a small body or water
  • ᛦ r yr “yew”, yew tree, or maybe “elm”

Younger Futhark headlines in the big bang in runic inscriptions: the number of known inscriptions hugely increases for Viking Age Scandinavia after 700 CE, with runes found on often-decorated runestones large and small which dot the landscape. These stones helped bump up the numbers to a total of almost 3000 Scandinavian runic inscriptions during this period - in stark contrast with the barely 400 Elder Futhark ones. All mediums taken together, the inscriptions tell us about ownership or inheritance, politics (power struggles, raiding and conquests, or major invasions), religion (including Christianity and its spread), travel (inland but also abroad), and literature and myth.

The runestones, specifically, usually serve the purpose of commemorating and celebrating the dead, and mainly stuck to a similar formula running along the lines of like “X (and Y) raised this stone in memory of Z, their relative” (Viking World, 283), sometimes adding an obituary, prayer or signature, or stating the deceased was a good warrior, farmer or husband, or indicating status, too. A good mainstream example would be the Helland 3 inscription from Rogaland in south-western Norway, tentatively dated to the early 11th century CE, which is transcribed as:


Þormóðr raised this stone after Þróndr, his son (Barnes, 71).

However, deciphering runestones was not straightforward, as words were not always separated (by otherwise present points or double points between letters) runes were sometimes left out altogether.

Viking Age runestones and runestone-fragments are unevenly spread across Scandinavia. They appear around inhabited parts of Norway (c. 60 of them); in hotspots in northeast Jutland in Denmark as well as on Bornholm and in southern Skåne (c. 220); and in Sweden (c. 2600 stones) mainly focused in the provinces around Lake Mälaren, with Östergötland, Västergötland, Småland, Öland and Gotland also adding up to about a 100 stones. Outside of Scandinavia, around 50 runestones can be found (including fragments). Dating runestones can be difficult especially when based on the language alone, but a method using the types of ornamentation, developed in 2003 CE by Anne-Sofie Gräslund, is proving useful.

The stones also raise the question of literacy: as Michael Barnes explains,

…we have no idea how many Viking-Age Scandinavians were literate in runes, but there must have been a critical mass that made it meaningful to have commemorative inscriptions carved in stone and set up in public places. (88)

Some are even signed by their carver(s) (for whom it must have been a specific skill); the three most famous and most-attested ones we know of today being Asmund, Fot, and Öpir. Although its commissioners were mainly male and the stones mostly male-oriented, Anne-Sofie Gräslund explains that "a closer look at all inscription material from Uppland reveals that women are mentioned fairly often in the texts, either as the raisers or the ones commemorated, either alone or together with men"(Vikings. The North Atlantic Saga, 68).

Anglo-Saxon Futhorc

Unlike Younger Futhark's reduction in characters from Elder Futhark, in Britain and Frisia (in what is now the Netherlands), things went in the opposite direction. Arguably beginning as early as the 5th century CE, runes were actually added – between four and eight – in this script known as Anglo-Saxon Futhorc (or Fuþorc, synonymous with Anglo-Frisian Fuþorc). Anglo-Saxons and Frisians agreed to disagree on some finer points of usage, though, and earlier and later Anglo-Saxon runic use also varied.

The runes were used to write Old English and Old Frisian, with Frisian not using the final two runes of the rune-row added for the Old English usage. Fewer than 200 inscriptions – mainly on personal items, weapons, stone crosses, and coins – are known. From the 7th century through the 9th century CE, runes pop up as coin legends, hinting at a practical application of the script. In England, Christianity entered the stage in the 7th century CE and proceeded to leave its mark on Futhorc, too, innovating and standardising away (mainly visible in the runes ᚣ and ᛠ used for /y/ and /æe/) likely in a conscious reform. Except in manuscripts, Latin was used side by side with runes. The Anglo-Saxon runes held strong until at least the end of the 10th century CE, after which their use seems to grind to a halt. A composite rune-row showing common versions of the Anglo-Saxon Futhorc can be given as follows, starting with the rune, its transliteration, its name in Old English, and the meaning of that name:

  • ᚠ f feoh “wealth”
  • ᚢ u ūr “aurochs”
  • ᚦ þ, ð (th-sound) þorn “thorn”
  • ᚩ o ōs “one of the gods”, also “mouth”
  • ᚱ r rād “ride”
  • ᚳ c cēn “torch”
  • ᚷ g gyfu “gift”
  • ᚹ p, w pynn “mirth”
  • ᚻ h hægl “hail” (the precipitation)
  • ᚾ n nȳd “need”
  • ᛁ I īs “ice”
  • ᛄ j gēr “year”, typically “harvest”
  • ᛇ eo/ɨ ēoh “yew”
  • ᛈ p peorð unknown, but maybe “pear tree”
  • ᛉ x eolh “elk sedge”
  • ᛋ s sigel “sun”
  • ᛏ t Tīƿ “glory”
  • ᛒ b beorc “birch”
  • ᛖ e eh “horse”
  • ᛗ m mann “man”
  • ᛚ l lagu “lake”
  • ᛝ ŋ (ng-sound) Ing the hero “Ing”
  • ᛟ œ ēðel “inherited estate”
  • ᛞ d dæg “day”
  • ᚪ a āc “oak”
  • ᚫ æ æsc “ash” (the tree)
  • ᚣ y ȳr “bow”
  • ᛡ ia, io/y īor “eel”
  • ᛠ ea ēar “grave”

Medieval Futhork

In Scandinavia, between the late 10th century CE and c. 1200 CE, Younger Futhark was gradually adapted into the Medieval Futhork (or Medieval Fuþork), which by the 13th century CE had taken on a fairly consistent form. Mainly sticking to the 16 Younger Futhark runes, some extra bits and bobs were added to the runes themselves – in particular in the shape of dots that set apart a specific sound value from the other sounds the undotted rune could represent. A dotted rune was not counted as a new rune but as a part of their undotted partners-in-crime. The ð-sound (modern English "th" in "weather"), for example, is not listed in the rune-row below, as it is the dotted version (ᚧ) of the ᚦ rune (which stands for þ ("th" in English "thin").

Finally, too, as a step away from the confusing world of Younger Futhark, Medieval Futhorc had by the 13th century CE begun to double some consonant runes instead of leaving doubles out. Bind-runes (ligatures of two or more runes) also jump up in popularity, probably under the influence of Latin, which liked writing stuff like "æ" and "œ" and which tagged along on the wings of Christianity which converted Scandinavia around 1000 CE. The order of the runes in the list had one change, from m-l to l-m. Runes stuck around, now with a companion Roman alphabet, throughout the Middle Ages, and were used in such things as personal letters, merchants' labels, amulets, and manuscripts (sometimes mixed with Latin). A common Medieval Futhork rune-row can be given as follows, indicating the rune and its transliteration:

  • ᚠ f
  • ᚢ u
  • ᚦ þ ('th')
  • ᚮ o
  • ᚱ r
  • ᚴ k
  • ᚼ h
  • ᚿ n
  • ᛁ i
  • ᛆ a
  • ᛌ, ᛋ s
  • ᛐ t
  • ᛒ b
  • ᛘ m
  • ᛚ l
  • ᛦ (ᚤ, ᛨ) i
  • ᛂ e
  • ᛅ, ᛆ æ
  • ᚯ ø
  • ᚵ g
  • ᛑ d
  • ᛔ (ᛕ) p
  • ᛋ z, c


Keeping the runic flame alight after the medieval period, medieval runes actually remained in use, increasingly heavily influenced by Latin, in Sweden's Dalarna province from the 16th through to the 20th century CE, its particular forms known as Dalecarlian runes or Dalrunes. We can conclude that runes are tenacious, for sure; the use of modern runes has even made it into modern paganism, and they appear widely in a fantasy context. My favourite is the runic alphabets' inspiration of (among others) the dwarven script known as Cirth as developed by J.R.R. Tolkien in his The Lord of the Rings universe.

Runes Found on Seventh-Century Cow Bone Could Change Slavic History

A Czech graduate student has discovered unusual markings on a bone that may upend accepted beliefs of Slavic history. The find is also stirring up nationalistic sentiment about how early European tribes interacted some 1,400 years ago.

Archaeologist Alena Slámová noticed the scratches on a seventh-century A.D. cow bone recovered during a dig in Lany, near the Czech town of Breclav. When researchers studied the item further, they realized the markings were actually Germanic runic letters—a startling find, as historians previously thought Slavic peoples did not develop an alphabet until the ninth century. The team’s findings are newly published in the Journal of Archaeological Science.

“It was absolutely surprising for us,” lead author Jiří Macháček, head of archaeology at Masaryk University in Brno, tells Coilin O’Connor of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL).

No one knows who carved the letters on the bone fragment. But Macháček and his co-authors suspect that it was either a Slav who learned the German runic alphabet or an individual of Germanic origin living in Slavic territory.

The discovery’s significance stems in part from longstanding tensions between Slavic and German peoples. During World War II, the Nazis targeted Eastern Europe’s Slavs, whom they viewed as inferior, much as they did the continent’s Jews.

As Macháček tells Andrew Higgins of the New York Times, the runic writing indicates that the two groups “were trying to communicate with each other and were not just fighting all the time.”

Other scholars disagree with that assessment. Florin Curta, a historian and archaeologist at the University of Florida who was not involved in the study, is certain the marks are Germanic runes and refers to them as a “very important discovery.” But he refutes Macháček’s contention that a Slav carved them, telling the Times that they were probably made by a local who spoke and wrote an early Germanic language.

An international team of Czech, Austrian, Swiss and Australian scientists dated the cow rib fragment to 600 A.D. using genetic and radiocarbon testing, reports Agence France-Presse (AFP).

Robert Nedoma, a philologist from the University of Vienna, identified the inscription as Elder Futhark runes, which were used by German-speaking inhabitants of central Europe between the second and seventh centuries. The alphabet included 24 symbols, the last seven of which were scratched onto the broken bone.

A graduate student spotted the runes inscribed on the surface of a seventh-century cow bone. (Masaryk University)

“It is likely that the entire alphabet was originally inscribed on the bone,” note the scholars in a statement. “The bone was not inscribed with a specific message. Instead, it seems to be a learning aid, an idea that the several mistakes in the inscription lend weight to.”

While the discovery is potentially revelatory, it is also inflaming nationalistic pride in Europe. Enmity between the German and Slavic peoples has been strong for centuries during World War II, historian Per Anders Rudling told Smithsonian magazine’s Meilan Solly earlier this year, the Nazis waged “a war of racial extermination” on the Eastern Front.

“Hitler made it very clear that it was a different conflict than what they called the European ‘normal war’ in the West,” where the Nazis were more concerned with keeping conquered countries dependent on Germany than in waging a campaign of total annihilation, Rudling explained.

As the Times points out, Slavs view runes “as particularly toxic” because Nazi SS troops wore stylized letters from the alphabet on their uniforms.

“If we Czechs have a culture, it must never be said that we have it from the Germans, but it must be said that we have it in spite of the Germans,” wrote “self-declared patriot” Stanislav Jahoda in a recent online discussion hosted by a Czech newspaper, per the Times.

Historians have long held that Slavs lacked an alphabet until the ninth century, when Christian missionaries introduced Glagolitic script, according to Encyclopedia Britannica. But some scholars argue that the Slavic-speaking world achieved a level of literacy before then. Per RFE/RL, these researchers cite a text dated to around 900 A.D. by a Bulgarian monk who described “strokes and incisions” used by early Slavs.

“Our find is the first one after nearly 200 years of discussions to suggest that it is possible that the [early Slavs] had some script,” Macháček tells RFE/RL.

Macháček thinks the team’s discovery will lead to more finds regarding runic lettering. Speaking with RFE/RL, he says he hopes it will “open our mind a little bit, so we can think about our common history and culture” and change the way people think about each other.

“Nobody was interested in looking for inscriptions on these bones because we had no idea that something like this could be here,” Macháček says. “So perhaps now that we have this first find, we and other archaeologist colleagues will attempt to look for more.”

About David Kindy

David Kindy is a journalist, freelance writer and book reviewer who lives in Plymouth, Massachusetts. He writes about history, culture and other topics for Air & Space, Military History, World War II, Vietnam, Aviation History, Providence Journal and other publications and websites.

Rune Variations

Final Product

Ingredient 1

Ingredient 2

Ingredient 3

Weapon Slot Effects

Armor Slot Effects

Amulet/Ring Slot Effects

Intelligence: +1
Movement: +0.25

Small Thunder Rune

Medium Thunder Rune

Large Thunder Rune

Small Rock Rune

Version History:




  • Framed Frost runes and Framed Thunder runes now have the correct bonuses
  • Improved tooltips for runes




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26 May 2021 01:04

Wits potion does not stack

22 Feb 2021 14:23

Wondered if anyone tried, for making air runes does a gold coin count as a gold item?

08 Feb 2021 01:20

have some issues, i have read some issues added runes to empty slots, i made sure the item and rune is on the persons bag and the person was highlighted but i still can&apost add the rune to the item (weapon or amulet) i have 5 runes and tryed each one on each of the items but nothing happens. what am i doing wrong?

31 Jul 2020 20:32

The resistances for runes in armor are wrong. It&aposs listed with 6/9/12/15, but it got reduced (?) to 5/7/9/11.

27 Mar 2020 11:01

Mystical Giant Masterwork Rune adds +3 Strength on an armor-slot instead of +3 Constitution

22 Jan 2020 17:00

"any wood" is wrong, so very wrong. i can&apost find wood ANYWHERE

14 Jan 2020 23:20

Incorrect Giant Rock Rune value for vitality. My game says +111 vitality instead of +203. Did the value get changed?

24 Dec 2019 10:56

Runes with +x% maximum armor increase whole armor or just Item they were put intro?

16 Dec 2019 23:04

Why do the giant mystical masterwork runes give a bonus +3 when all others just give +1? As of now, there is absolutely no reason a 2h melee fighter would use a giant mystical rock rune (+1 2h, +15% earth dmg) over a giant masterwork rune of power (+3 str, +15% physical dmg), right? The +3 strength will boost your dmg way more than the +1 2h I would think, plus the other added damage stacks onto the physical dmg the sword is already dealing, instead of spreading it out over the 2 armor types.

20 Jul 2019 21:43

The listed resistance values for all the runes seem high (playing definitive edition). Giant runes give +11% resistance (on armor).

28 Jun 2019 09:24

Mystical Giant Masterwork Rune gives Constitution: +1 and maximum Physical Armour: +21%, not +40%.

15 Jan 2019 20:03

Were the medium runes split so your slots in the c4afting table were 1 med, 1 med and 1 pixie dust? Also were can the list of what item types can have a rune slot, I have been looking everywhere and all that comes up is the old 3 runes to 1 forumns.

04 Jan 2019 21:19

Does one need to find the book for crafting a specific (size) rune or can one &aposlearn&apos the recipe by trying different combinations of items and discovering it? I&aposm asking because, e.g. I don&apost have the recipe for large flame rune among the recipes learned, so I looked it up in the table here and then tried to combine 2 medium flame runes + pixie dust and it didn&apost work (invalid combination).

16 Dec 2018 23:48

The Mystical Giant Venom Rune gives me +11% poison resistance, instead of +15% as written above, in addition to the +1 summoning.

18 Oct 2018 02:32

FIrst frame can be found in a basement in Driftwood, where there&aposs a lmprisioned lich (can&apost recall its name). From then on, just check vendors.

04 Oct 2018 00:17

Obviously something does not work in your gameplay, at level 16 I have my 4 pg party full rune/mystic/power (16 runes in total). I confirm the nerf to the crit% of the flame runes.

25 Sep 2018 20:03

In the definitive edition the flame runes have been nerfed greatly, they only give 3/4/5/6% crit chance now

28 Mar 2018 22:57

cqnt crqft smqll thunder rune zhy §§§§

04 Feb 2018 06:25

Found my first Rune Frame at lvl 16 on a dungeon

25 Dec 2017 15:04

Added a new section for changes history by game version

25 Dec 2017 13:35

hi I think I found a couple mistakes, I just crafted those runes and below are only the differences from the above:
- "Mystical Giant Flame Rune" => (W) 9% as fire dmg
- "Mystical Giant Thunder Rune" => (Ar) 15% Air res(Am) 6% Dodge
- "Mystical Giant Frost Rune" => (W) 11% as water dmg (Ar) 15% Water res (Am) 1 mov
- "Mystical Giant Rock Rune" => (W) 13% as Earth dmg

- "Giant Flame Rune of Power" => (W) 9% as Fire dmg
- "Giant Thunder Rune of Power" => (Ar) 15% Air res
- "Giant Frost Rune of Power" => (Ar) 15% Water res (Am) 1 mov
- "Giant Master Rune of Power" => (W) 2 str (Ar) 2 str and 30% phys armour (Am) 2 str and 30% mag armour
- "Giant Rock Rune of Power" => (W) 13% as Earth dmg

I am not sure if the reduction in some of the effects is intentional as a balance for the added attribute by the mystical/power runes or not but I hope that if some of these were nor intended someone notice this. Thanks

25 Dec 2017 12:57

hi I think I found a mistake, I just crafted the "Mystical Giant Flame Rune" and the description says it adds Ranger 1 and 9% as fire damage not 15%.

18 Dec 2017 04:41

Giant Thunder Rune of Power, when inserted into a necklace gives Finesse: +3 and Movement: +1.

12 Dec 2017 20:37

You still need the spell crit talent.

01 Dec 2017 17:31

Does the +crit from Flame Runes give spells the ability to crit, or does one still need to pick up the talent?

What are runes and what’s their use?

What is a Celtic runestone?

Current Celtic runes have been used since the 17 th century. These stones are cast to foretell the future and are small with an old, magical alphabet carved on them.

The best psychics have used physical tools for centuries to get answers from the universe. Accurate readings can all be provided using tea leaves, coffee grounds, and crystals. But the common tool that is frequently used is cards. Quite a number of psychic mediums use angel cards, tarot cards, or even play cards to predict the future, answer questions and to vision about a person’s life. However, there is another tool that can be used for all these and that is the Celtic rune stones.

History suggests that runes are most likely to be the first mystical tools that are used to protect and connect to psychic insights. They were used by Romans and Germans way back in 150-800 AD according to pieces of evidence provided. The word rune means ‘secret whisper’ in different languages. This is an indication of the special powers that casting runes hold.

Celtic runes, magic stones, and Viking runes are the names used to refer to rune stones. There might be a small difference in how they vary but they use a similar or less similar runic alphabet.

What are their uses?

They can be used to give you guidance or foretell what the future holds and answer any questions that you might have. The old symbols can help visualize situations and help predict the outcome. Quite a number of psychics use their instincts and casting runes to get answers to particular questions as this helps them understand everything better and give them a clear future.

The magical symbols on rune stones were used for shields, amulets and to hide secret messages, in the past. Just like other well-known symbols such as hamsa, the runic alphabet has been used to provide protection and healing.

How do you read runes?

Individuals usually ask what runes are and what they are used for. Rune reading frequently gives deep insights, although not straight forward answers. This, therefore, means that a psychic has to use their intuition to read runes and get accurate answers. The symbols on the runes have a particular meaning that can be interpreted in distinct ways just like tarot cards. Casting and reading runes often take years to master because of the complexities.

Psychic uses distinct rune casting spreads to read the runes with the most well-known being 3, 5, and 9 runestone layouts. These can also be drawn individually to give insights to specific people, question or situation.

If you are always open and focused during psychic readings, then be sure that the stones will give you accurate predictions of what the future holds.

Mythic Origins

The historical origins of the runes came from the days when Germanic warbands raided people living south of them, in present day Italy. Scholars debate whether the runes were derived from an Old Italic alphabet or perhaps from an Etruscan script. The Germanic warbands would have brought back the alphabet from those raids to the south.

The Norse people, however, knew that Odin had discovered the runes as he hung himself on Yggdrasil, the world tree, for nine days. During this ordeal, Odin fasted and stared into the Well of Urd, where he perceived the runes.

Runes, then, besides their use as a written code, have magical properties. Runes were often used in magical charms for protection and for healing. They were also used to lay a curse. Runes themselves were thought to carry magical power.

This article is part of our larger selection of posts about Vikings history. To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to Vikings history


Different rune rarities grant differing amounts of experience and have different success rates when fusing.

Rarity Experience Merge Chance Expected Runes to Acquire T2 Expected Runes to Acquire T3
Common 10 25% 5 25
​​ Uncommon 15 35% 3.86 14.88
​​​ Rare 25 40% 3.5 12.25
​​​​ Epic 30 45% 3.22 10.38
​​​​​ Legendary 35 50% 3 9

F(n), the probability of successfully fusing on the nth attempt is represented as a function of P(n), the probability of merging on a given attempt. This distribution is binomial in nature.

C(n) the cost in runes on the nth attempt is

Therefore, we can represent E(n), the expected number of runes during fusing as E(n) = ∑ F(n) * C(n)

In order to calculate the expected runes to acquire

, we can represent the cost C(n) in terms of the cost of T2, or

Therefore, the cost of T3 rune is

/> /> Alternatively, where

is the level of the rune desired:

Possible Combinations

For the purpose of estimating the runtime of search algorithms in the space of possible rune pages, it may be interesting to enumerate the number of unique possible combinations of runes. Since the position of any particular rune on the rune page does not influence its statistics, the order within the rune page can be disregarded and it only matters how many of which types of runes occur on the rune page. In the mathematical sense, this means we are looking for the number of combinations with repetition (since any type of rune can occur multiple times, in fact as often as there are slots) of length 9 from the sets of marks, seals and glyphs and of length 3 from the set of quintessences, respectively. The problem can be solved with binomial coefficients. Assuming only Tier 3 runes are chosen and no slots may be left blank:

  • 19 different T3 Marks constitute c(19+9-1, 9) = 4,686,825 combinations of marks.
  • 24 different T3 Seals constitute c(24+9-1, 9) = 28,048,800 combinations of seals.
  • 22 different T3 Glyphs constitute c(22+9-1, 9) = 14,307,150 combinations of glyphs.
  • 33 different T3 Quintessences constitute c(33+3-1, 3) = 6,545 combinations of quintessences

The number of unique combinations of entire rune pages is the product of those:

1.23*10^25 or 12.31 septillion.

If an algorithm was to evaluate one billion of these combinations per second, it would still require

390.08 million years to evaluate all of them, making exhaustive approaches practically impossible.

Either preselections of eligible runes or heuristics have to be employed instead.

Removing Runes [ edit | edit source ]

Although Runes must be bound to monsters before they can be used, they can still be removed at a cost of Mana Stones. Once removed, the rune will go back into the player's inventory and can be equipped again on a monster. Starting 6th June 2015, rune removals on the first Saturday of every month is free. (As of 22nd of March 2016 should the first Saturday of the month be the first day of the month it is postponed to the 8th)

Like the power-up cost, the cost of removing a rune only depends on the grade of the rune. The following table shows the costs of removing a Rune from a monster.

Grade Cost

Study of Ancient Runes



Required textbooks

Required equipment

The Study of Ancient Runes (commonly shortened to Ancient Runes) was an elective course at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and presumably Ilvermorny School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, that could be taken by students third year and above. ΐ] Δ]

It was taught by Professor Bathsheda Babbling during the 1990s at least Ώ] and it was the study of runic scriptures, or Runology. Ancient Runes was a mostly theoretical subject that studied the ancient runic scripts of magic.

Doom Eternal

Runes return in Doom Eternal, but are altered somewhat. While Runes are still found in the environment (this time as floating Makyr devices), there are no Rune Trials: on encountering one of the devices, the player can simply choose which of the nine available Runes that they wish to unlock. The first three Rune unlocks each unlock a Rune Slot in the inventory.

There is no longer a levelling system for Runes: they always operate in the same way.

Rune Benefit
Savagery Perform Glory Kills faster.
Seek and Destroy Launch into a Glory Kill from much further away.
Blood Fueled Gain a speed boost after performing a Glory Kill. (Also triggers on kills with the Chainsaw and Crucible)
Air Control Greatly increase movement control while in the air.
Dazed and Confused Increases how long enemies remain in a stagger state.
Saving Throw Survive a death blow and briefly slow down time, giving you a chance to recover.
Chrono Strike Hold the weapon mod button in mid-air to temporarily slow down time. Once the Rune is fully drained, you'll need to wait for it to recharge.
Equipment Fiend Enemies killed by equipment or while under the influence of equipment will decrease the recharge time.
Punch and Reave Enemies killed by a Blood Punch shockwave drop health.

The Ancient Gods - Part 1 adds a new type of Rune called a Support Rune. These are only useable in the DLC. There are three available, which are equipped to their own slot which unlocks when the player acquires one of them. They cannot be equipped in the normal Rune slots.

Watch the video: ALL ABOUT RUNES (September 2022).


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