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(MSO - 489: dp. 780; 1. 172'; b. 36'; dr. 10'; s. 15 k.;
cpl. 74; a. 1 40mm.; cl. Aggressive)
The second Gallant (A-3I - 98) was laid down 21 May 1953 by J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Wash.; launched 4 June 1951; sponsored by Mrs Walter Meserole; reclassified (MSO~89) on 7 February 1955 and commissioned as Gallant (MS0~89) at Tacoma 14 September 1955, Lt Dixon Lademan in command.
After shakedown, Gallant based from Long Beach, Calif., as a unit of Mine Division 96, Mine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Her readiness exercises ranged as far south as Acapulco, Mexico. She rescued two crew members of a Navy plane downed off Santa Catalina Island and joined Mine Division 73 in January 1957 for concentrated training preparatory to a 6-month tour with the 7th Fleet (March-August 1957). This duty found her in Korean waters for combined operations with the Republic of Korea Navy, followed by similar service off Formosa with units of the Chinese Nationalist Navy. Other training took her to ports of Japan and Hong Kong before her return to Long Beach 20 August 1957.
After a yard overhaul at San Diego, she took part in amphibious landing exercises along the California coast followed by combined minesweeping operations with Canadian mine Squadron 2 off the coast of Vancouver, British Columbia, in October 1958. Another overhaul period was completed by April 1959 when she began refresher training and mine countermeasures exercises that won her the Battle Efficiency Competition Award "E" and the Minesweeping "I" as the outstanding minesweeper of the Pacific Mine Force during Fiscal 1959.
Gallant's second tour with the 7th Fleet (August 1959 March 1960) again included training with the Republic Of Korea Navy. While operating out of the Philippines, she participated in joint readiness operations with the navies of SEATO nations. She returned to Long Beach in March 1960 and spent the next 12 months in a training schedule with the mine force of the 1st Fleet that carried her as far north as Ketchikan, Alaska.
Service during her third deployment in the Far East (August 1961-April 1962) once again included fleet readiness defense exercises with the free-world navies of Southeast Asia. In addition, she patrolled the coast of South Vietnam and provided valuable service during training operations of the South Vietnam Navy. Returning to the West Coast 20 April 1962, she resumed duty out of Long Beach, and during the next 15 months participated in fleet maneuvers and mine squadron exercises off southern California.
Departing Long Beach 12 August 1963, Gallant steamed on her fourth deployment to the troubled Far East, where she arrived Sasebo, Japan, 23 September. There, she resumed peace-keeping operations with the mighty 7th Fleet and, during readiness patrols in far eastern waters, she cruised from the coast of South Korea through the East China and South China Seas to the coast of Southeast Asia, She departed WestPac in the spring of 1964; and, after additional training in hunting mines, sailed for blockade and coastal patrol duty off Vietnam. Arriving off the southern coast of South Vietnam 1 October 1965 she joined Operation "Market Time," designed to control coastal infiltration of men and supplies by the Viet Cong. Throughout the remainder of the year, Gallant boarded and searched suspicious Vietnamese boats, providing valuable support for the Republic of Vietnam in her struggle against Communist insurgency.
She supported "Market Time" operations until 9 March 1~6 when she departed for the United States. Steaming via the Philippines, Guam, and Pearl Harbor, she arrived Long Beach 28 April. During the remainder of the year, she operated along the West Coast from Long Beach to Portland, Oreg., to maintain her fighting capabilities and operational readiness.
USS Gallant (MSO-489)
USS Gallant (MSO-489), an Aggressive-class minesweeper, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named Gallant. The ship served in the US Navy from 1954 until 1994, when it was sold to Taiwan under the Security Assistance Program and renamed to Yung Ku (M 1308).
The second Gallant (AM-489) was laid down on 21 May 1953 by J. M. Martinac Shipbuilding Corp., Tacoma, Washington launched on 4 June 1954 sponsored by Mrs. Walter Meserole reclassified (MSO-489) on 7 February 1955 and commissioned as Gallant (MSO-489) at Tacoma on 14 September 1955, Lieutenant Dixon Lademan in command.
The U.S. Navy has a long history of mine sweeping, having lost the first modem ships to those infernal torpedoes in the Civil War. As a byproduct of Mr. Roosevelt’s Great North Sea Mine Barrage of the Great War, the Navy commissioned their first class of minesweepers, the Lapwing or “Old Bird” type vessels which lingered into WWII, followed by 1930s-era 147-foot three-ship Hawk-class and the much larger 220-foot Raven and Auk-classes early in the first days of that second great international hate.
Then came the 123-ship Admirable (AM-136)-class of 180-foot/950-ton vessels built during WWII– many of which remained in hard service through Korea before being passed on to allied nations.
With the lessons learned from that conflict, in which the Koreans used literally thousands of Soviet, Chinese and leftover Japanese mines up and down the coastline, a class of MSO (Mine Sweeper Ocean), sweepers was placed on order during that police action, with class leader USS Agressive (MSO-422) laid down at Luders Marine in Stamford, Connecticut 25 May 1951 and commissioned just weeks after the cease fire in 1953
At some 867-tons (fl) and 172-foot overall, they were roughly the same size as the steel-hulled minesweepers Admirable-class ships they were replacing, but they had a bunch of new tricks up their sleeve including using laminated wood construction with bronze and stainless steel fittings and to minimize their magnetic signature.
The main propulsion plant consisted of four Packard 1D1700 non magnetic diesel engines driving twin controllable pitch propellers (CRP). This was one of the earliest CRP installations in the navy.
They were also fitted with a UQS-1 mine-locating sonar, an important next step in minehunting.
UQS-1 mine-locating sonar panel currently at the Museum of Man in the Sea in Panama City. Photo by Chris Eger
Thus equipped, they could sweep moored mines with Oropesa (“O” Type) gear, magnetic mines with a Magnetic “Tail” supplied by three 2500 ampere mine sweeping generators, and acoustic mines by using Mk4(V) and A Mk6 (B) acoustic hammers.
Their armament, when compared to the Admirable-class steel hulls they replaced, was much lighter, consisting of a single Bofors 40mm/60 gun forward and two .50 cals. It should be pointed out the WWII sweepers carried a 3″/50, 4x Bofors, 6x20mm Oerlikons, Hedgehog ASW mortars plus depth charge racks and projectors on a hull roughly the same size.
USS Lucid as commissioned, she is the only MSO still afloat in the Western hemisphere. Note her 40mm gun.
Some 53 hulls were completed by 1958 by a host of small domestic yards for the U.S. Navy (Luders, Bellingham, Higgins, etc) that specialized in wooden vessels, and often had created PT-boats and sub-chasers during WWII. In addition to this, 15 were built for France, four for Portugal, six for Belgium, two for Norway, one of Uruguay, four for Italy, and six for Holland. The design was truly an international best-seller and in some cases the last hurrah for several of these small yards.
In U.S. service, they were quickly put to work everywhere from the Med to the South China Sea, performing general yeoman tasks for the fleet itself, participating in mine exercises and running sweeping ops in areas that still had the occasional WWII-era contact mine bobbing around. In addition, they helped with missile and torpedo tests, harbor defense exercises, acoustic ranging experiments, noise reduction experiments, located downed aircraft, performed special operations in 1962 during the nuclear tests in the Pacific Ocean, were instrumental in the Palomares hydrogen bombs incident, performed midshipman training cruises to the Caribbean, made repairs to cables and helped in the recovering of boilerplate and capsules for the Mercury and Gemini NASA programs.
Their shallow draft (10-feet in seawater) made them ideal for getting around littorals as well as going to some out of the way locales that rarely see Naval vessels. USS Leader (MSO-490) and USS Excel (MSO 439) became the first U.S. warships ever to visit the Cambodian capital of Phnom Penh when they completed the 180-mile transit up the Mekong River on 27 August 1961, a feat not repeated until 2007. USS Vital (MSO-474) ascended the Mississippi River in May 1967 to participate in the Cotton Carnival at Memphis, Tennessee.
USS Gallant (MSO-489) was used in 1966 for the filming of the Elvis Presley film, Easy Come, Easy Go.
Vietnam is where the class really shined, arriving early to the conflict, taking part in the party, and then sticking around for the clean up afterward.
As early as 1962, USS Fortify (MSO-446) was deployed off the coast of South Vietnam with her minesweeping gear removed and an electronic countermeasures “box” was installed on the fantail. The ship was involved in monitoring and intercepting Viet Cong radio transmissions, vectoring RVN gunboats to interdict large junks coming down the coast from the North that were suspected of furnishing arms and ammunition to cadres in the south. This led to some near-misses with NVA torpedo boats even before the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
Many of the class participated in Operation Market Time (11 March 1965 to December 1972) in an effort to stop the flow of supplies from North Vietnam into the south by sea. According to Navy reports, “The Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club” was very successful, but received little credit. Eventually all the supply routes at sea became non-existent, which forced the North Vietnamese to use the Ho Chi Minh Trail.
USS LEADER (MSO-490) Caption: Is seen from a Saigon based SP-2H Neptune aircraft while on a Market Time patrol during the later 1960s. The plane and ship are exchanging information on coastal traffic in the area. Description: Catalog #: NH 92011
As part of this effort, the shallow water craft boarded and searched South Vietnamese fishing junks for smuggled weapons and other contraband (during USS Loyalty‘s first patrol alone, her crew boarded 348 junks, detained two and arrested 14 enemy smugglers), served as mother ships for replenishing the needs of “Swift” boats, provided gunfire support to U.S. forces ashore, (on 22 and 23 March 1966 the USS Implict alone fired nearly 700 rounds of 40mm ammunition supporting small South Vietnamese naval craft under fire from enemy shore batteries), gave special operations support to the American Advisory units and performed hydrographic surveys on shoreline depths.
After the war, it was the Aggressive-class MSOs who were tasked with Operation End Sweep–removing mines and airdropped Mark 36 Destructors laid by the U.S. in Haiphong Harbor in North Vietnam and other waterways.
End Sweep’s line in action
In all some 10 MSO’s were part of Seventh Fleet’s Mine Countermeasures Force (Task Force 78), led by Rear Adm. Brian McCauley, during this six-month operation in the first half of 1973.
At the height of their involvement in Vietnam, the Navy started a mid-life extension and modernization process for roughly half of their MSOs. Running at $1.5 million per ship, the old Packard engines were removed and replaced with new aluminum block Waukesha diesels. The first generation mine sonar was swapped out for the new SQQ-14. As additional space on the foc’sle was needed for installation of the SQQ-14 cabling, the WWII-era 40mm Bofors bow gun was replaced with a mount for a twin 20 mm Mk 68. New sweep gear to include a pair of PAP-104 cable-guided undersea tools were added as was accommodation for clearance divers and two zodiacs powered by 40hp outboards.
Just 19 were updated to the new standard, and the MSO fleet began to severely contract.
Several took some hard knocks, especially when it came to fires.
USS Avenge (MSO-423) was gutted by a fire while drydocked at Bethlehem’s Fort McHenry Shipyard in Baltimore in 1969 and stricken the next year after a survey found her too far gone. An earlier flash fire on USS Exultant (MSO-441) while underway in 1960 claimed five lives though the ship herself was saved. USS Force (MSO-445) was not so lucky when on 24 April 1973 she lost off Guam after when a fuel leak was ignited by the No.1 Engine turbocharger and spread rapidly throughout the ship. USS Stalwart (MSO-493) capsized and sank as a result of fire at San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 25, 1966. USS Enhance (MSO-437), USS Direct (MSO-430) and USS Director (MSO-429) likewise suffered serious fires but were saved.
USS Prestige (MSO-465) ran aground and was stranded in the Naruto Straits, Inland Sea, Japan on 23 Aug 1958 and was abandoned as a total loss. Similarly, USS Sagacity (MSO-469) in March 1970, grounded at the entrance to Charleston harbor, causing extensive damage to her rudders, shafts, screws, keel, and hull, leading her to be stricken that October.
The Royal Navy diesel submarine HMS Rorqual bumped into the USS Endurance (MSO-435) while docking at River Point pier in Subic Bay, Philippines in 1969 while USS Forrestal (CVA-59) collided with the USS Pinnacle (MSO-462) at Norfolk in 1959. In all cases, the damage was slight.
USS Valor (MSO-472), just 15 years old, was found to be “beyond economical repair” in a survey in 1970 and scrapped.
By the end of Vietnam, the MSOs retained were converted to U.S. Naval Reserve Training (NRT) tasking classified as Naval Reserve Force (NRF) ships, used for training their complements of reserve crews one weekend a month two-weeks during the summer. This changed the crews from 7 officers, 70 enlisted (77 total) when on active duty, to 5 officers, 52 enlisted plus 25 reserve while a NRF vessel.
USS Energy (MSO-436) and Firm (MSO-444) were transferred to the Philippines, while USS Pivot (MSO-463), Dynamic, Persistent and Vigor went to Spain. Others, unmodernized, were sold for scrap.
By the 1980s, the European war scenario relied on North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) allies to participate substantially in mine warfare operations, and U.S. mine hunters continued to decline until just the 19 modernized 1950s MSOs, built for Korea and validated in Vietnam, remained in the NRF.
A bow view of the ocean minesweeper USS FORTIFY (MSO 446) underway, 6/8/1982. National Archives Photo.
A starboard view of the ocean minesweeper USS ILLUSIVE (MSO 448) underway, 8/13/1984. National Archives Photo.
During this period they often spent much time at the Mine Countermeasures Station at Panama City, Florida where they tested the first versions of the AN/WLD-1 (V) unmanned Minehunting systems, developed to scour the water for bottom and moored mines.
A few NRF MSOs were activated to assist in the Persian Gulf in 1987-88 during the tanker escort period (Operation Earnest Will) that involved Iranian sea mines, typically old Russian M08 contact types, swept.
Three sweepers: USS Fearless (MSO-442), USS Illusive (MSO-448), and USS Inflict (MSO-456), were towed 9,000 miles by the salvage ship USS Grapple (ARS-53) from Little Creek, Virginia, to the Persian Gulf.
While conducting minesweeping operations in the northern Persian Gulf, Inflict discovered and destroyed the first of 10 underwater contact mines deployed in a field across the main shipping channel.
Crewmen handle a minesweeping float on the stern of the ocean minesweeper USS INFLICIT (MSO 456), 4/27/1988. National Archives Photo
Then came the affair with Saddam in 1990.
Four minesweepers, USS Leader (MSO-490), USS Impervious (MSO-449), USS Adroit (MSO-509) and the brand new USS Avenger (MCM-1), were loaded aboard the Dutch heavy lift ship Super Servant 3 on 19 August 1990 at Norfolk and offloaded 5 October 1990 in the middle east.
Impervious, foreground, and Adroit (MSO 509) sit aboard the Dutch heavy lift ship Super Servant 4 as its deck is submerged to permit minesweepers to be unloaded. Photo by PHAN Christopher L. Ryan
You may not remember now, but Desert Storm at sea was a mine war, with USS Tripoli and USS Princeton (CG 59) rocked by exploding mines. Saddam sewed more than a 1,000 of his deadly easter eggs across the northern Gulf and it was the job of the sweepers, along with allied boats and helicopters and some 20 different EOD clearance teams, to clear the way for a possible D-Day style amphibious invasion by the Marines as well as hacking a path through the danger zone for battleships to approach for NGFS.
And with the victory in the desert, the MSOs were paid off, replaced nominally by a new class of (since disposed of) Osprey-class MHCs and the rest of the Avengers.
Between 1989-1994 the last of the MSOs were decommissioned and stricken with the healthiest four units transferred to the Republic of China Navy (Taiwan) in 1994-95: USS Conquest (MSO-488), USS Gallant (MSO-489), USS Pledge (MSO-492), and USS Implicit (MSO-455) as ROCS Yung Tzu (MSO-1307), ROCS Yung Ku (MSO-1308), ROCS Yung Teh (MSO-1309), ROCS Yung Yang (MSO-1306), respectively, are still in service.
Six were held on red lead row until as late as 2002, when they were scrapped despite the pleas from veterans’ groups to preserve one, with the MARAD claiming it was policy not to donate wooden ships due to the cost and magnitude of the maintenance required for upkeep.
In all, some 50,000 sailors served at one time or another on these wooden ships and are very well organized in The Navy MSO Association.
Finally, the MSO sailors were came across the old USS Lucid (MSO-458) which had been sold as scrap for $40,250 back in 1976 and had been used as a houseboat ever since.
Donated, the ship has become part of the Stockton Historical Maritime Museum since 2011 and is open to the public.
She is the only MSO preserved in the West.
In Holland, HNLMS Mercuur (A856), after her decommissioning in 1987, was preserved as a museum ship, first in Amsterdam, later in Scheveningen. She will be towed to the city of Vlissingen at some point this winter, and re-open as a museum ship in Vlissingen’s Perry dock around March 2017.
In all, the class served 40 years in a myriad of tasks and a few are still around and kicking.
Not bad for some forgotten old wooden boats.
The ocean minesweeper USS INFLICIT (MSO 456) heads towards the Persian Gulf to support US Navy escort operations, 9/1/1987
USS Gallant MSO 489
Decommissioned 29 April 1994
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After shakedown, Gallant based from Long Beach, California, as a unit of Mine Division 96, Mine Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Her readiness exercises ranged as far south as Acapulco, Mexico. She rescued two crew members of a Navy plane downed off Santa Catalina Island and joined Mine Division 73 in January 1957 for concentrated training preparatory to a six-month tour with the 7th Fleet (March–August 1957). This duty found her in Korean waters for combined operations with the Republic of Korea Navy, followed by similar service off Formosa with units of the Chinese Nationalist Navy. Other training took her to ports of Japan and Hong Kong before her return to Long Beach on 20 August 1957.
After a yard overhaul at San Diego, she took part in amphibious landing exercises along the California coast followed by combined mine sweeping operations with Canadian Mine Squadron 2 off the coast of Vancouver, British Columbia, in October 1958. Another overhaul period was completed by April 1959 when she began refresher training and mine countermeasures exercises that won her the Battle Efficiency Competition Award "E" and the Minesweeping "M" as the outstanding minesweeper of the Pacific Mine Force during Fiscal 1959.
Gallant's second tour with the 7th Fleet (August 1959-March 1960) again included training with the Republic of Korea Navy. While operating out of the Philippines, she participated in joint readiness operations with the navies of SEATO nations. She returned to Long Beach in March 1960 and spent the next 12 months in a training schedule with the Mine force of the 1st Fleet that carried her as far north as Ketchikan, Alaska.
Service during her third deployment in the Far East (August 1961-April 1962) once again included fleet readiness defense exercises with the navies of Southeast Asia. In addition, she patrolled the coast of South Vietnam and provided valuable service during training operations of the South Vietnam Navy. Returning to the West Coast on 20 April 1962, she resumed duty out of Long Beach and during the next 15 months participated in fleet maneuvers and mine squadron exercises off southern California.
Departing Long Beach on 12 August 1963, Gallant steamed on her fourth deployment to the troubled Far East, where she arrived Sasebo, Japan, on 23 September. There, she resumed peace-keeping operations with the 7th Fleet and, during readiness patrols in Far Eastern waters, she cruised from the coast of South Korea through the East China and South China Seas to the coast of Southeast Asia. She departed WestPac in the spring of 1964, and after additional training in hunting mines, sailed for blockade and coastal patrol duty off Vietnam. Arriving off the southern coast of South Vietnam on 1 October 1965, she joined "Operation Market Time", designed to control coastal infiltration of men and supplies by the Viet Cong. Throughout the remainder of the year, Gallant boarded and searched suspicious Vietnamese boats.
She supported "Market Time" operations until 9 March 1966 when she departed for the United States. Steaming via the Philippines, Guam, and Pearl Harbor, she arrived Long Beach on 28 April. During the remainder of the year, she operated along the West Coast from Long Beach to Portland, Oregon, to maintain her fighting capabilities and operational readiness.
During September 1966, the vessel was used in the filming of the Elvis Presley film, Easy Come, Easy Go.
Decommissioning and sale
Decommissioned on 29 April 1994 Gallant was sold to Taiwan on 8 September 1994, under the Security Assistance Program, and renamed Yung Ku (M 1308).
Gallant- MSO- 489 - History
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ord Roberts had now been six weeks in the capital, and British troops had overrun the greater part of the south and west of the Transvaal, but in spite of this there was continued Boer resistance, which flared suddenly up in places which had been nominally pacified and disarmed. It was found, as has often been shown in history, that it is easier to defeat a republican army than to conquer it. From Klerksdorp, from Ventersdorp, from Rustenburg, came news of risings against the newly imposed British authority. The concealed Mauser and the bandolier were dug up once more from the trampled corner of the cattle kraal, and the farmer was a warrior once again. Vague news of the exploits of De Wet stimulated the fighting burghers and shamed those who had submitted. A letter was intercepted from the guerilla chief to Cronje’s son, who had surrendered near Rustenburg. De Wet stated that he had gained two great victories and had fifteen hundred captured rifles with which to replace those which the burghers had given up. Not only were the outlying districts in a state of revolt, but even round Pretoria the Boers were inclined to take the offensive, while both that town and Johannesburg were filled with malcontents who were ready to fly to their arms once more.
Already at the end of June there were signs that the [475/476] Boers realised how helpless Lord Roberts was until his remounts should arrive. The mosquitoes buzzed round the crippled lion. On June 29th there was an attack upon Springs near Johannesburg, which was easily beaten off by the Canadians. Early in July some of the cavalry and mounted infantry patrols were snapped up in the neighbourhood of the capital. Lord Roberts gave orders accordingly that Hutton and Mahon should sweep the Boers back upon his right, and push them as far as Bronkhorst Spruit. This was done on July 6th and 7th, the British advance meeting with considerable resistance from artillery as well as rifles. By this movement the pressure upon the right was relieved, which might have created a dangerous unrest in Johannesburg, and it was done at the moderate cost of thirty-four killed and wounded, half of whom belonged to the Imperial Light Horse. This famous corps, which had come across with Mahon from the relief of Mafeking, had, a few days before, ridden with mixed feelings through the streets of Johannesburg and past, in many instances, the deserted houses which had once been their homes. On July 9th the Boers again attacked, but were again pushed back to the eastward.
It is probable that all these demonstrations of the enemy upon the right of Lord Roberts’s extended position were really feints in order to cover the far-reaching plans which Botha had in his mind. The disposition of the Boer forces at this time appears to have been as follows: Botha with his army occupied a position along the Delagoa railway line, further east than Diamond Hill, whence he detached the bodies which attacked Hutton upon the extreme right of the British position to the south-east of Pretoria. To the north of Pretoria a second force was acting under Grobler, while a third [476/477] under Delarey had been dispatched secretly across to the left wing of the British, north-west of Pretoria. While Botha engaged the attention of Lord Roberts by energetic demonstrations on his right, Grobler and Delarey were to make a sudden attack upon his centre and his left, each point being twelve or fifteen miles from the other. It was well devised and very well carried out but the inherent defect of it was that, when subdivided in this way, the Boer force was no longer strong enough to gain more than a mere success of outposts.
Delarey’s attack was delivered at break of day on July 11th at Nitral’s Nek, a post some eighteen miles west of the capital. This position could not be said to be part of Lord Roberts’s line, but rather to be a link to connect his army with Rustenburg. It was weakly held by three companies of the Lincolns with two others in support, one squadron of the Scots Greys, and two guns of Battery R.H.A. The attack came with the first grey light of dawn, and for many hours the small garrison bore up against a deadly fire, waiting for the help which never came. All day they held their assailants at bay, and it was not until evening that their ammunition ran short and they were forced to surrender. Nothing could have been better than the behaviour of the men, both infantry, cavalry, and gunners, but their position was a hopeless one. The casualties amounted to eighty killed and wounded. Nearly two hundred were made prisoners and the two guns were taken. With the ten guns of Colenso, two of Stormberg, and seven of Sanna’s Post, this made twenty-one British guns which the Boers had the honour of taking. On the other hand, the British had captured up to the end of July two at Elandslaagte, one at Kimberley, one at Mafeking, six at Paardeberg, one at Bethlehem, three at Fouriesberg, two [475/476] at Johannesburg, and two in the west, while early in August Methuen took one from De Wet and Hamilton took two at Olifant’s Nek — which made the honours easy.
On the same day that Delarey made his coup at Nitral’s Nek, Grobler had shown his presence on the north side of the town by treating very roughly a couple of squadrons of the 7th Dragoons which had attacked him. By the help of a section of the ubiquitous Battery and of the 14th Hussars, Colonel Lowe was able to disengage his cavalry from the trap into which they had fallen, but it was at the cost of between thirty and forty officers and men, killed, wounded, or taken. The old ‘Black Horse’ sustained their historical reputation, and fought their way bravely out of an almost desperate situation, where they were exposed to the fire of a thousand riflemen and four guns. These two affairs were, however, among the last successes which the Boers could claim in a war which had opened with so brilliant a series of victories. Against the long odds of distance, of pestilence, and of inferior mobility, the persistence of the British was slowly wearing down all resistance.
On this same day of skirmishes, July 11th, the Gordons had seen some hot work twenty miles or so to the south of Nitral’s Nek. Orders had been given to the 19th Brigade (Smith-Dorrien’s) to proceed to Krugersdorp, and thence to make their way north. The Scottish Yeomanry and a section of the 78th R .F.A. accompanied them. The idea seems to have been that they would be able to drive north any Boers in that district, who would then find the garrison of Nitral’s Nek at their rear. The advance was checked, however, at a place called Dolverkrantz, which was strongly held by Boer riflemen. The two guns were insufficiently [478/479] protected, and the enemy got within short range of them, killing or wounding many of the gunners. The Lieutenant in charge, Mr. A. J. Turner, the famous Essex cricketer, worked the gun with his own hands until he also fell wounded in three places. The situation was now very serious, and became more so when news was flashed of the disaster at Nitral’s Nek, and they were ordered to retire. They could not retire and abandon the guns, yet the fire was so hot that it was impossible to remove them. Gallant attempts were made by volunteers from the Gordons — Captain Younger and other brave men throwing away their lives in the vain effort to reach and to limber up the guns. At last, under the cover of night, the teams were harnessed and the two field-pieces successfully removed, while the Boers who rushed in to seize them were scattered by a volley. The losses in the action were thirty-six and the gain nothing. Decidedly July llth was not a lucky day for the British arms.
It was well known to Botha that every train from the south was bringing horses for Lord Roberts’s army, and that it had become increasingly difficult for De Wet and his men to hinder their arrival. The last horse must win, and the Empire had the world on which to draw. Any movement which the Boers would make must be made at once, for already both the cavalry and the mounted infantry were rapidly coming back to their full strength once more. This consideration must have urged Botha to deliver an attack on July 16th, which had some success at first, but was afterwards beaten off with heavy loss to the enemy. The fighting fell principally upon Pole-Carew and Hutton, the corps chiefly engaged being the Royal Irish Fusiliers, the New Zealanders, the Shropshires, and the Canadian Mounted [449/4S0] Infantry. The enemy tried reiieatedly to assault the position, but were beaten back each time with a loss of nearly a hundred killed and wounded. The British loss was about sixty, and included two gallant young Canadian officers, Borden and Birch, the former being the only son of the minister of militia. So ended the last attempt made by Botha upon the British positions round Pretoria. The end of the war was not yet, but already its futility was abundantly evident. This had become more apparent since the junction of Hamilton and of Buller had cut off the Transvaal army from that of the Free State. Unable to send their prisoners away, and also unable to feed them, the Freestaters were compelled, before their own collapse, to deliver up in Natal the prisoners whom they had taken at Lindley and Roodeval. These men, a ragged and starving battalion, emerged at Ladysmith, having made their way through Van Reenen’s Pass. It is a singular fact that no parole appears on these and similar occasions to have been exacted by the Boers.
Lord Roberts, having remounted a large part of his cavalry, was ready now to advance eastward and give Botha battle. The first town of any consequence along the Delagoa Railway is Middelburg, some seventy miles from the capital. This became the British objective, and the forces of Mahon and Hamilton on the north, of Pole-Carew in the centre, and of French and Hutton to the south, all converged upon it. There was no serious resistance, though the weather was abominable, and on July 27th the town was in the hands of the invaders. From that date until the final advance to the eastward French held this advanced post, while Pole-Carew guarded the railway line. Rumours of trouble in the west had convinced Roberts that it was not yet time to [480/481] push his advantage to the east, and he recalled Ian Hamilton’s force to act for a time upon the other side of the seat of the war. This excellent little army, consisting of Mahon’s and Pilcher’s mounted infantry, M Battery R.H.A., the Elswick Battery, two 5-in. and two 4-7 guns, with the Berkshires, the Border Regiment the Argyle and Sutherlands, and the Scottish Borderers, put in as much hard work in marching and in fighting as any body of troops in the whole campaign.
The renewal of the war in the west had begun some weeks before, but was much accelerated by the transference of Delarey and his burghers to that side. To attempt to give any comprehensive or comprehensible account of these events is almost impossible, for the Boer movements are still shrouded in mystery, but the first sign of activity appears to have been on July 7th, when a commando with guns appeared upon the hills above Rustenburg. Where the men or the guns came from is as difficult a problem as where they go to when they wish to disappear. It is probable that the guns are buried and dug up again when wanted. However this may be, Hanbury Tracy, Commandant of Rustenburg, was suddenly confronted with a summons to surrender. He had only 120 men and one gun, but he showed a bold front. Colonel Holdsworth, at the first whisper of danger, had started from Zeerust with a small force of Australian bushmen, and arrived at Rustenburg in time to drive the enemy away in a very spirited action. On the evening of July 8th Baden Powell took over the command, the garrison being reinforced by Plumer’s command.
The Boer commando was still in existence, however, and it was reinforced and reinvigorated by Delarey' s success at Nitral’s Nek. On July 13th they began to [481/482] close in upon Rustenburg again, and a small skirmish took place between them and the Australians. Methuen’s division, which had been doing very arduous service in the north of the Free State during the last six weeks, now received orders to proceed into the Transvaal and to pass northwards through the disturbed districts en route for Eustenburg, which appeared to be the storm centre. The division was transported by train from Kroonstad to Krugersdorp, and advanced on the evening of July 18th upon its mission, through a bare and fire-blackened country. On the 19th Lord Methuen manoeuvred the Boers out of a strong position, with little loss to either side. On the 21st he forced his way through Olifant’s Nek, in the Magaliesberg range, and so established communication with Baden-Powell, whose valiant bushmen, under Colonel Airey, had held their own in a severe conflict near Magato Pass, in which they lost six killed, nineteen wounded, and nearly two hundred horses. The fortunate arrival of Captain FitzClarence with the Protectorate Regiment helped on this occasion to avert a disaster.
Although Methuen came within reach of Eustenburg, he did not actually join hands with Baden-Powell. No doubt he saw and heard enough to convince him that that astute soldier was very well able to take care of himself. Learning of the existence of a Boer force in his rear, Methuen turned, and on July 29th he was back at Frederickstad on the Potchefstroom-Krugersdorp railway. The sudden change in his plans was caused doubtless by the desire to head off De Wet in case he should cross the Vaal River. Lord Roberts was still anxious to clear the neighbourhood of Eustenburg entirely of the enemy and he therefore, since Methuen was needed to complete the cordon round De Wet, [487/488
recalled Hamilton’s force from the east and despatched it, as already described, to the west of Pretoria.
Before going into the details of the great De Wet hunt, in which Methuen’s force was to be engaged, I shall follow Hamilton’s division across, and give some account of their services. On August 1st he set out from Pretoria for Rustenburg. On that day and on the next he had brisk skirmishes which brought him successfully through the Magaliesberg range with a loss of forty wounded mostly of the Berkshires. On the 5th of August he had made his way to Eustenburg and drove off the investing force. A smaller siege had been going on to westward, where at Elands River another Mafeking man, Colonel Hore, had been held up by the burghers. For some days it was feared, and even ofificially announced, that the garrison had surrendered. It was known that an attempt by Carrington to relieve the place on August 5th had been beaten back, and that the state of the country appeared so threatening that he had been compelled to retreat as far as Mafeking, evacuating Zeerust and Otto’s Hoop. In spite of all these sinister indications the garrison was still holding its own, and on August 16th it was relieved by Lord Kitchener.
This stand at Brakfontein on the Elands River appears to have been one of the very finest deeds of arms of the war. The Australians have been so split up during the campaign, that though their valour and efficiency were universally recognised, they had no single large exploit which they could call their own. But now they can point to Elands River as proudly as the Canadians can to Paardeberg. They were only 400 in number on an exposed kopje, with 2,500 Boers round them, and no help near. Six guns were trained upon them, and during 11 days 1,800 shells fell within their [483/484] lines. The river was half a mile off, and every drop of water for man or beast had to come from there. Nearly all their horses and 75 of the men were killed or wounded. With extraordinary energy and ingenuity the little band dug shelters which are said to have exceeded in depth and efficiency any which the Boers have devised. Neither the repulse of Carrington, nor the jamming of their only gun, nor the death of the gallant Arnet, was sufficient to dishearten them. They were sworn to die before the white flag should wave above them. And so fortune yielded, as fortune will when brave men set their teeth, and Broadwood’s troopers, filled with wonder and admiration, rode into the lines of the reduced and emaciated but indomitable garrison. When the ballad-makers of Australia seek for a subject, let them turn to Elands River, for there was no finer fighting in the war. They will not grudge a place in their record to the 130 gallant Rhodesians who shared with them the honours and the dangers of the exploit.
On August 7th Ian Hamilton abandoned Eustenburg, taking Baden-Powell and his men with him. It was obviously unwise to scatter the British forces too widely by attempting to garrison every single town. For the instant the whole interest of the war centred upon De Wet and his dash into the Transvaal. One or two minor events, however, which cannot be fitted into any continuous narrative may be here introduced.
One of these was the action at Faberspruit, by which Sir Charles Warren crushed the rebellion in Griqualand. In that sparsely inhabited country of vast distances it was a most difficult task to bring the revolt to a decisive ending. This Sir Charles Warren, with his special local knowledge and interest, was able to do, and the success is doubly welcome as bringing additional [484/485] honour to a man who, whatever view one may take of his action at Spion Kop, has grown grey in the service of the Empire. With a column consisting mainly of colonials and of yeomanry he had followed the rebels up to a point within twelve miles of Douglas. Here at the end of May they turned upon him and delivered a fierce night attack, so sudden and so strongly pressed that much credit is due both to General and to troops for having repelled it. The camp was attacked on all sides in the early dawn. The greater part of the horses were stampeded by the firing, and the enemy’s riflemen were found to be at very close quarters. For an hour the action was warm, but at the end of that time the Boers fled, leaving a number of dead behind them. The troops engaged in this very creditable action, which might have tried the steadiness of veterans, were four hundred of the Duke of Edinburgh’s volunteers, some of Paget’s horse and of the 8th Kegiment Imperial Yeomanry, four Canadian guns, and twenty-five of Warren’s Scouts. Their losses were eighteen killed and thirty wounded. Colonel Spence, of the volunteers, died at the head of his regiment. A few days before, on May 27th, Colonel Adye had won a small engagement at Kheis, some distance to the westward, and the effect of the two actions was to put an end to open resistance. On June 20th De Villiers, the Boer leader, finally surrendered to Sir Charles Warren, handing over two hundred and twenty men with stores, rifles, and ammunition. The last sparks had been stamped out in the colony.
There remain to be mentioned those attacks upon trains and upon the railway which had spread from the Free State to the Transvaal. On July 19th a train was wrecked on the way from Potchefstroom to Krugersdorp without serious injury to the passengers. On [485/486] July 31st, however, the same thmg occurred with more murderous effect, the train running at full speed off the metals. Thirteen of the Shropshires were killed and thirty-seven injured in this deplorable affair, which cost us more than many an important engagement. On August 2nd a train coming up from Bloemfontein was derailed by Sarel Theron and his gang some miles south of Kroonstad. Thirty-five trucks of stores were burned, and six of the passengers (unarmed convalescent soldiers) were killed or wounded. A body of mounted infantry followed up the Boers, who numbered eighty, and succeeded in killing and wounding several of them.
On July 21st the Boers made a determined attack upon the railhead at a point thirteen miles east of Heidelberg, where over a hundred Koyal Engineers were engaged upon a bridge. They were protected by three hundred Dublin Fusiliers under Major English. For some hours the little party was hard pressed by the burghers, who had two field-pieces and a pom-pom. They could make no impression, however, upon the steady Irish infantry, and after some hours the arrival of General Hart with reinforcements scattered the assailants, who succeeded in getting their guns away in safety.
At the beginning of August it must be confessed that the general situation in the Transvaal was not reassuring. Springs near Johanneslmrg had in some inexplicable way, without fighting, fallen into the hands of the enemy. Klerksdorp, an important place in the south-west, had also been reoccupied, and a handful of men who garrisoned it had been made prisoners without resistance. Rustenburg was about to be abandoned, and the British were known to be falling back from Zeerust and Otto’s Hoop, concentrating upon Mafeking. The sequel proved however, that there was no cause for [486/487] uneasiness in all this. Lord Roberts was concentrating his strength upon those objects which were vital, and letting the others drift for a time. At present the two obviously important things were to hunt down De Wet and to scatter the main Boer army under Botha. The latter enterprise must wait upon the former, so for a fortnight all operations were in abeyance while the flying columns of the British endeavoured to run down their extremely active and energetic antagonist.
At the end of July De Wet had taken refuge in some exceedingly difficult country near Reitzburg, seven miles south of the Vaal River. The operations were proceeding vigorously at that time against the main army at Fouriesberg, and sufficient troops could not be spared to attack him, but he was closely observed by Kitchener and Broadwood with a force of cavalry and mounted infantry. With the surrender of Prinsloo a large army was disengaged, and it was obvious that if De Wet remained where he was he must soon be surrounded. On the other hand, there was no place of refuge to the south of him. With great audacity he determined to make a dash for the Transvaal, in the hope of joining hands with Delarey’s force, or else of making his way across the north of Pretoria, and so reaching Botha’s army. President Steyn went with him, and a most singular experience it must have been for him to be harried like a mad dog through the country in which he had once been an honoured guest. De Wet’s force was exceedingly mobile, each man having a led horse, and the ammunition being carried in light Cape carts.
M. T. Steijn, President of the Orange Free State from Rompel’s Heroes of the Boer War . Click on image to enlarge it.
In the first week of August the British began to thicken round his lurking-place, and De Wet knew that it was time for him to go. He made a great show of fortifying a position, but it was only a ruse to deceive [487/488] those who watched him. Traveling as hghtly as possible, he made a dash on August 7th at the drift which bears his own name, and so won his way across the Vaal River, Kitchener thundering at his heels with his cavalry and mounted infantry. Methuen’s force was at that time at Potchefstroom, and instant orders had been sent to him to block the drifts upon the northern side. It was fomid as he approached the river that the vanguard of the enemy was already across and that it was holding the spurs of the hills which would cover the crossing of their comrades. But the dash of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers and the exertions of the artillery ridge after ridge was carried, but before evening De Wet with supreme skill had got his convoy across, and had broken away, first to the eastward and then to the north. On the 9th Methuen was in touch with him again, and the two savage little armies, Methuen worrying at the haunch, and De Wet snapping back over his shoulder, swept northward over the huge plains. Wherever there was ridge or kopje the Boer riflemen staved off the eager pursuers. Where the ground lay flat and clear the British guns thundered onwards and fired into the lines of wagons. Mile after mile the running fight was sustained, but the other British columns, Broadwood’s men and Kitchener’s men, had for some reason not come up. Methuen alone was numerically inferior to the men he was chasing, but he held on with admirable energy and spirit. The Boers were hustled off the kopjes from which they tried to cover their rear. Twenty men of the Yorkshire Yeomanry carried one hill with the bayonet, though only twelve of them were left to reach the top.
De Wet trekked onwards during the night of the 9th, shedding wagons and stores as he went. He was [488/489] able to replace some of his exliausted beasts from the farmhouses which he passed. Methuen on the morning of the 10th struck away to the west, sending messages back to Broadwood and Kitchener in the rear that they should bear to the east, and so nurse the Boer column between them. At the same time he sent on a messenger, who unfortunately never arrived, to warn Smith-Dorrien at Bank Station to throw himself across De Wet’s path. On the 11th it was realised that De Wet had succeeded, in spite of great exertions upon the part of Smith-Dorrien’s infantry, in crossing the railway line, and that he had left all his pursuers to the south of him. But across his front lay the Magaliesberg range. There are only three passes, the Magato Pass, Olifant’s Nek, and Commando Nek. It was understood that all three were held by British troops. It was obvious, therefore, that if Methuen could advance in such a way as to cut De Wet off from slipping through to the west he would be unable to get away. Broadwood and Kitchener would be behind him, and Pretoria, with the main British army, to the east.
Methuen continued to act with great energy and judgment. At three a.m. on the 12th he started from Fredericstadt, and by 5 p.m. on Tuesday he had done eighty miles in sixty hours. The force which accompanied him was all mounted, 1,200 of the Colonial Division and the Yeomanry with ten guns. Douglas with the infantry was to follow behind, and these brave fellows covered sixty- six miles in seventy-six hours in their eagerness to be in time. No men could have made greater efforts than did those of Methuen, for there was not one who did not appreciate the importance of the issue and long to come to close quarters with the wily leader who had baffled us so long. [489/490]
On the 12th Methuen’s van again overtook De Wet’s rear, and the old game of rearguard riflemen on one side, and a pushing artillery on the other, was once more resumed. All day the Boers streamed over the veldt with the guns and the horsemen at their heels. A shot from the 78th Battery struck one of De Wet’s guns, which was abandoned and captured. Many stores were taken and much more, with the wagons which contained them, burned by the Boers. Fighting incessantly, both armies traversed thirty-five miles of ground that day.
It was fully understood that Olifant’s Nek was held by the British, so Methuen felt that if he could block the Magato Pass all would be well. He therefore left De Wet’s direct track, knowing that other British forces were behind him, and he continued his swift advance until he had reached the desired position. It really appeared that at last the elusive raider was in a corner. But, alas for fallen hopes, and alas for the wasted efforts of gallant men! Olifant’s Nek had been abandoned and De Wet had passed safely through it into the plains beyond, where Delarey’s force was still in possession. Whose the fault, or whether there was a fault at all, it is for the future to determine. At least unalloyed praise can be given to the Boer leader for the admirable way in which he had extricated himself from so many dangers. On the 17th, moving along the northern side of the mountains, he appeared at Commando Nek on the Little Crocodile Kiver, where he summoned Baden-Powell to surrender, and received some chaff in reply from that light-hearted commander. Then, swinging to the eastward, he endeavoured to cross to the north of Pretoria. On the 19th he was heard of at Hebron. Baden-Powell and Paget had, however, already barred this path, and De Wet, having [490/491] sent Steyn on with a small escort, turned back to the Free State. On the 22nd it was reported that, with only a handful of his followers, he had crossed the Magaliesberg range by a bridle-path and was riding southwards. He had not been captured, but at least he could now do no serious harm to the British line of communications. Lord Roberts was at last free to turn his undivided attention upon Botha.
Two Boer plots had been discovered during the first half of August, the one in Pretoria and the other in Johannesburg, each having for its object a rising against the British in the town. Of these the former, which was the more serious, involving as it did the kidnapping of Lord Roberts, was broken up by the arrest of the deviser, Hans Cordua, a German lieutenant in the Transvaal Artillery. On its merits it is unlikely that the crime would have been met by the extreme penalty, especially as it was a question whether the agent provocateur had not played a part. But the repeated breaches of parole, by which our prisoners of one day were in the field against us on the next, called imperatively for an example, and it was probably rather for his broken faith than for his hare-brained scheme that Cordua died. At the same time it is impossible not to feel sorrow for this idealist of twenty-three who died for a cause which was not his own. He was shot in the garden of Pretoria Gaol upon August 24th. A fresh and more stringent proclamation from Lord Roberts showed that the British Commander was losing his patience in the face of the wholesale return of paroled men to the field, and announced that such perfidy would in future be severely punished.
Chapter 634 Is That You?
The blurry figure of Holy Sage Flying Light was sporting a ripped cut on the right side of his waist. And his left arm had been cut off. Even though he had dissolved into nothingness, he was still seriously maimed. In just an instant, he had lost his combat capability.
“How did you know my weak spots?”
Holy Sage Flying Light gaped at the ponytailed girl with horror and desperation in his eyes. He backed away quickly. Obviously, he had lost the ability to fight.
A moment ago, the sword and broadsword momentum of the ponytailed girl changed subtly, and then the killing intent abruptly erupted. The parts she had injured were exactly the only two weak spots that he had not been able to cover up after tens of thousands of years of industrious cultivation.
She had hit the targets at one go.
And the moment her attack arrived, he collapsed.
His cultivation had been ruined.
In the whole world, apart from himself, no one knew where his weak spots were.
But why did this ponytailed girl suddenly change her move and successfully hit his weak points at one blow?
What was more, she had hit both of his two weak points.
This was definitely not a coincidence.
Could it be that she had been playing dumb and secretly planning her moves the whole time?
The more Holy Sage Flying Light thought about it, the more scared he became. That strike almost scared the life out of him, so he no longer dared to fight again. Even though the huge face of Ghost Seer was supervising from the sky, he still decided to run for his life first.
Because if he was hit in his weak points again, he would really die.
At the moment, what Holy Sage Flying Light feared the most was that the girl would come after him.
Yet, the ponytailed girl simply stood where she was in a daze, with an incredulous look in her eyes. She didn’t seem to have the slightest intention of chasing after Holy Sage Flying Light at all.
At this moment, she was no longer as proud and arrogant as she was when facing the three Holy Sages. Her beautiful hands, which were holding the sword and the broadsword, were trembling slightly. Her slender body was also quivering. There seemed to be tears welling up in her bright eyes.
That voice had come from behind her, but she did not dare to look back for the moment.
Because she was afraid that when she looked back, she would find that there was no one behind her. Then, it would be confirmed that it was her hallucination, just like all those times she had had in dreams.
At this time, two more scandalized and miserable roars rang out on the battlefield.
The fleshless figure of Holy Sage White Bone Shadow had also been forced into a retreat.
His head had been chopped off. His white fleshless left hand was carrying his own skull. With his head severed from his body, the skeleton rapidly backed away.
Although there was no expression on the face of the skull, even the weakest ghost cultivators in the surroundings could still clearly feel the indescribable horror and fear in the energy fluctuation of the soul of one of the three Holy Sages. Needless to say, he had lost the ability to fight, too.
Holy Sage Black Sun was in an even worse situation.
His body—the ball of black ghost fire—had directly been pierced. His huge body collapsed in the void. The black ghost fire fanned out like a puddle of soft mud. It seemed that he had lost the ability to move and could not run away even if he wanted. Like a dying beast, he kept howling in horror and wrath in the center of the black flames.
The black ghost fire, which looked like black blood, continued to flow out of his broken limbs and dyed the sky an eerie inky color.
In just one second, to everyone’s intense disbelief, the three Holy Sages had been crushed.
It was so fast that no one understood what really happened at that moment.
The reaction of the Two Sages of the Bone Sacred Mountain was just like that of the proud ponytailed girl. They were trembling from head to toe with excitement and could hardly hold their weapons in a grip.
The woman sage and the man sage called out at the same time.
In an instant, they were overwhelmed by a wave of indescribable ecstasy and astonishment.
Who would have ever thought that the person they had thought about day and night had actually come to the Ghost Rally Star?
It was not until this moment that all the others ghost cultivators found that a figure had quietly appeared on the battlefield.
The figure was tall and slender.
The energy fluctuations he was emitting were not very much impressive.
His face was alight with heroic spirits.
There was an attractive smile on his face, which seemed to be enough to warm up this gloomy and cold world of ghosts.
It was the kind of smile hard to forget.
Elder Zhen Ye slipped into a huge shock, and his mind went blank. He almost blurted out this exclamation in an instant.
He was the only ghost cultivator who had seen Li Mu rise to the air from his side and effortlessly enter the battlefield.
Then, he saw that Li Mu pulled some tricks that he could not understand, then, the battle, which was supposed to bring them doom, suddenly took an incredible turn, and the three Holy Sages all suffered heavy losses in an instant.
“No, he’s not the Wild Broadsword. Who on earth is he?”
Zhen Ye’s heart was filled with great curiosity.
And this question also unstoppable popped up in the minds of all the ghost cultivators on the scene at almost the same time.
After putting his head back, the crestfallen Holy Sage White Bone Shadow gazed at Li Mu in disbelief.
Even a fool could have already guessed that the only reason why the tide had been turned in an instant was the sudden appearance of the figure.
The three Ghost Lords standing outside the battlefield were stunned at once.
It was especially true for the head of the Lost Land.
Because not long after the war began, this junior ghost cultivator known as the Wild Broadsword killed two of his personal guards with just two strikes and seriously injured another trusted subordinate of his. That goaded him to come to the battlefield and fight in person. In the end, right before he was about to kill the Wild Broadsword, he was stopped by the woman sage of the Bone Sacred Mountain.
Regardless, for all the head of the Lost Land knew, this junior ghost cultivator was as humble as an ant in his eyes. He could crush him with just one finger.
But now, he found that he didn’t know Li Mu at all.
How could a real humble junior ghost cultivator ever participate in a battle of this level and easily change the result?
Was he the real trump card of the Bone Sacred Mountain?
The miserable cries of Holy Sage Black Sun, one of the three Holy Sages, resounded through heaven and earth, causing the blood of every ghost cultivator to run cold.
The stronger one was and the more powerful his Cultivation Method was, the more serious his injuries would be once his weak points were attacked.
The weak point of a ghost cultivator was like a dragon’s forbidden lamella.
Anyone who touched a dragon’s forbidden lamella would invite his rage.
Why would the dragon flare up?
Because if the forbidden lamella was plucked out, the dragon would die.
Once one’s weak point was hit, one would either die or be crippled.
Today, if it weren’t for the suppressive ghost talisman cast by Ghost Seer, the three Holy Sages would have died at that moment. There would have been utterly no escape for them.
In the eyes of the proud ponytailed girl, everything in this world had faded.
She no longer cared about any of that.
Because the person she cared about the most had come.
Still, she did not dare to turn around.
Because she was afraid that as soon as she turned around, everything would vanish as if it were a dream.
The familiar voice, which had been lingering in her dreams, once again sounded.
The voice came right behind her.
When she heard that voice call her icai”, the ponytailed girl finally let go of all her pride and aloofness. She even abandoned the sword and broadsword in her hands. Then, she whipped around and rushed over regardless of anything.
She flung herself into a familiar embrace.
𠇋ig brother, it’s really you. I’m not dreaming, am I?” As Caicai felt the familiar embrace, she could no longer hold back her tears and let them gush out.
Could a ghost cultivator shed tears?
But at this time, there were crystal tears flowing out of the ponytailed girl’s eyes. Her teardrops were as pure as the most impeccable treasure in the world.
These teardrops mirrored her soul. These were indeed the most sparkling treasures.
Li Mu’s eyes were also a little moist.
He had once thought that he had forever lost this adorable and sensible little girl.
In the battles to seize the ten cities and nine counties, the Western Qin besieged the Great Moon Empire. Yu Hualong, the crown prince of the Great Moon Empire, led his army to fight back. In the end, he and his men were outnumbered, so they chose to break out of the siege and proposed to Emperor Qin Ming that he was willing to hand over the civilians and the Longcheng Pass as long as Emperor Qin Ming would give proper treatment to the civilians in the city.
Emperor Qin Ming gave his word.
However, when the unarmed, innocent civilians marched out of the Longcheng Pass, what greeted them was the most shameless and cruel massacre from the Qin Army.
At that time, Caicai and Granny Cai were also among this group of civilians.
Li Mu hurried there later and defeated Emperor Qin Ming. But then, someone broke the news of Caicai’s and her grandmother’s tragic death to him. He went to look for them in piles of corpses in person. Yet, he had failed to find them, be it their bodies or souls.
Because of that, Li Mu felt that a demon had lived in his heart since then.
In that battle, Li Mu lost a lot of friends.
He lost Caicai and her grandmother, as well as Yu Hualong.
However, owing to Yu Hualong’s profound cultivation and Emperor Qin Ming’s intention to make him suffer from humiliation, his soul had been preserved.
Li Mu had been blaming himself for hesitating over whether he should stay away from the matter for his own safety and so missing the best timing to save his friends. But now, he could finally take part of the load off his mind.
The man sage and the woman sage also came over and saluted to Li Mu.
The two moguls, who had thousands of ghost cultivators under their leadership and were strong enough to fight against the three Holy Sages, acted like the most loyal subordinates before Li Mu. They were so respectful as if they were meeting some elders of their family.
“Sister Dong Xue, Brother Ning, glad we meet again.”
Li Mu greeted them with a smile.
The Two Sages were, of course, Dong Xue and Ning Jing, a couple who used to live on the Divine Land.
“Young Master, how come you are on the Ghost Rally Star? You can’t have also…” Dong Xue suddenly came to her senses. A surprised look climbed onto her face.
Only the dead would come to the Ghost Rally Star.
Ning Jing also came to see the issue. Suddenly, a look of disbelief appeared on his face.
𠇋ig brother, you…” Caicai also realized what was going on.
They were very happy to see Li Mu again.
However, if they could choose, they would rather not meet him in this place in this way.
Li Mu shook his head and said, 𠇍on’t worry, I’m not dead.”
It was not until then that the three of them heaved a sigh of relief.
The voice of the huge face called Ghost Seer came from the sky. 𠇊 living person has actually sneaked into the world of the dead. Hahaha, then, don’t think about leaving. I was wondering why there was no sign of you in the divination. It turned out that you are an outsider.”
Ghost Seer had not spoken until this moment because he had been observing Li Mu in secret.
This junior ghost cultivator, who had not been captured in his divination but had changed the result of the battle in an instant, turned out to be from the world of the living. Thus, he couldn’t see him through.
“Really?” Li Mu looked up at the huge face and said, 𠇊ren’t you also from the world of the living? You and I are of the same kind.”
“Huh?” A trace of astoundment finally appeared on the forever expressionless face.
Ghost Seer was suddenly swept over by shock.
This secret had not been discovered by anyone over all those years. But how come this youngster knew about it? Could it be that he also came from that place?
Ghost Seer stared at Li Mu, and the expression on his huge face began to become intimidating.
 We do not know why the trial judge sustained the objection compare Farrow v. State, 233 Md. 526 , 197 A.2d 434 and Graham v. State, 239 Md. 521 , 212 A.2d 287 .
 Alabama Hodge v. State, 98 Ala. 10 , 13 So. 385 , 39 Am. St. Rep. 17 (1893) Simpson v. State, 111 Ala. 6 , 20 So. 572 (1896) Little v. State, 145 Ala. 662 , 39 So. 674 (1905) Richardson v. State, 145 Ala. 46 , 41 So. 82 , 8 Ann. Cas. 108 (1906) Hargrove v. State, 147 Ala. 97 , 41 So. 972 , 119 Am. St. Rep. 60 , 10 Ann. Cas. 1126 (1906) McDonald v. State, 165 Ala. 85 , 51 So. 629 (1909) Gallant v. State, 167 Ala. 60 , 65, 52 So. 739 , 741 (1910) Allen v. State, 8 Ala. App. 228 , 62 So. 971 , 1917E L.R.A. 730 (1913) Loper v. State, 205 Ala. 216 , 87 So. 92 (1920) Moore v. State, 26 Ala. App. 607 , 164 So. 761 (1935) Orr v. State, 236 Ala. 462 , 183 So. 445 (1938) Burks v. State, 240 Ala. 587 , 200 So. 418 (1941) Aaron v. State, 271 Ala. 70 , 122 So. 2d 360 (1960)
Arkansas Holub v. State, 116 Ark. 227 , 172 S.W. 878 (1916) Padgett v. State, 125 Ark. 471 , 188 S.W. 1158 (1916) Cranford v. State, 130 Ark. 101 , 197 S.W. 19 (1917) McDonald v. State, 145 Ark. 581 , 224 S.W. 976 (1920) Adams v. State, 149 Ark. 669 , 235 S.W. 372 (1921) West v. State, 150 Ark. 555 , 234 S.W. 997 (1921) Fox v. State, 156 Ark. 428 , 246 S.W. 863 (1923) Doyle v. State, 166 Ark. 505 , 266 S.W. 459 (1924) Rolen v. State, 191 Ark. 1120 , 89 S.W.2d 614 (1936)
Florida Davis v. State, 46 Fla. 137 , 35 So. 76 (1903) Davis v. State, 47 Fla. 26 , 36 So. 170 (1904) Tomlinson v. State, 129 Fla. 658 , 176 So. 543 (1937)
Georgia Fite v. State, 16 Ga. App. 22 , 84 S.E. 485 (1915) Aiken v. State, 16 Ga. App. 848 , 86 S.E. 1076 (1915) Harris v. State, 17 Ga. App. 723 , 88 S.E. 121 (1916) Troup v. State, 26 Ga. App. 623 , 107 S.E. 75 (1921) Schell v. State, 72 Ga. App. 804 , 35 S.E.2d 325 (1945) Mitchell v. State, 202 Ga. 247 , 42 S.E.2d 767 (1947)
Kansas State v. Adams, 85 Kan. 435 , 116 P. 608 , 35 L.R.A. (N.S.) 870 (1911) State v. Mooney, 93 Kan. 353 , 144 P. 228 (1914) State v. Sweet, 101 Kan. 746 , 168 P. 1112 (1917) State v. Schalansky, 112 Kan. 87 , 209 P. 816 (1922) State v. Evans, 115 Kan. 538 , 224 P. 492 State v. Fixley, 118 Kan. 1 , 233 P. 796 (1925) State v. Netherton, 133 Kan. 685 , 3 P.2d 495 (1931)
Kentucky Pedigo v. Commonwealth, 103 Ky. 41 , 44 S.W. 143 , 19 Ky. L . Rep. 1723, 82 Am. St. Rep. 566 , 42 L.R.A. 432 (1898) Allen v. Commonwealth, 26 Ky. L. Rptr. 807 , 82 S.W. 589 (1904) Denham v. Commonwealth, 119 Ky. 508 , 84 S.W. 538 (1905) Sprouse v. Commonwealth, 132 Ky. 269 , 116 S.W. 344 (1909) Blair v. Commonwealth, 171 Ky. 319 , 188 S.W. 390 (1916) Blair v. Commonwealth, 181 Ky. 218 , 204 S.W. 67 (1918) Meyers v. Commonwealth, 194 Ky. 523 , 240 S.W. 71 (1922) Springs v. Commonwealth, 198 Ky. 258 , 248 S.W. 535 (1923) Hays v. Commonwealth, 211 Ky. 716 , 277 S.W. 1004 (1925) Stidham v. Commonwealth, 221 Ky. 49 , 297 S.W. 929 (1927) Keaton v. Commonwealth, 223 Ky. 645 , 4 S.W.2d 675 (1928) Alsept v. Commonwealth, 240 Ky. 395 , 42 S.W.2d 517 (1931) Bullock v. Commonwealth, 241 Ky. 799 , 45 S.W.2d 449 (1932) Bullock v. Commonwealth, 249 Ky. 1 , 60 S.W.2d 108 , 94 A.L.R. 407 (1933) Short v. Commonwealth, 251 Ky. 819 , 66 S.W.2d 33 (1933) Kelly v. Commonwealth, 259 Ky. 770 , 83 S.W.2d 489 (1935) Crabtree v. Commonwealth, 260 Ky. 575 , 86 S.W.2d 301 (1935) Brummett v. Commonwealth, 263 Ky. 460 , 92 S.W.2d 787 (1936) Daugherty v. Commonwealth, 293 Ky. 147 , 168 S.W.2d 564 (1943)
Louisiana State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) State v. Harrison, 149 La. 83 , 88 So. 696 (1921) State v. Davis, 149 La. 1009 , 90 So. 385 (1921) State v. Davis, 154 La. 295 , 97 So. 449 (1923) State v. Greene, 210 La. 157 , 26 So. 2d 487 (1946)
Massachusetts Commonwealth v. Smith, 342 Mass. 180 , 182, 172 N.E.2d 597 (1961) Commonwealth v. LePage, 226 N.E.2d 200 (Mass. 1967)
Minnesota Crosby v. Moriarty, 148 Minn. 201 , 181 N.W. 199 (1921)
Mississippi Spears v. State, 92 Miss. 613 , 46 So. 166 , 16 L.R.A. (N.S.) 285 (1908) Carter v. State, 106 Miss. 507 , 64 So. 215 (1914) Scott v. State, 108 Miss. 464 , 66 So. 973 (1915) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1926) Boatwright v. State, 143 Miss. 676 , 109 So. 710 (1926) Fisher v. State, 150 Miss. 206 , 116 So. 746 (1928) Hinton v. State, 175 Miss. 308 , 166 So. 762 (1936)
Missouri State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) State v. White, 195 S.W. 994 (Mo. 1917) State v. Deems, 280 Mo. 84 , 217 S.W. 43 (1919) State v. Barnes, 289 S.W. 562 (Mo. 1926) State v. Steely, 327 Mo. 16 , 33 S.W.2d 938 (1930) State v. Freyer, 330 Mo. 62 , 48 S.W.2d 894 (1932) State v. Shawley, 334 Mo. 352 , 67 S.W.2d 74 , 86 (1933) State v. Long, 336 Mo. 630 , 80 S.W.2d 154 (1935)
North Carolina State v. Moore, 129 N.C. 494 , 39 S.E. 626 , 55 L.R.A. 96 (1901) State v. Hunter, 143 N.C. 607 , 56 S.E. 547 , 118 Am. St. Rep. 830 (1907) State v. Freeman, 146 N.C. 615 , 60 S.E. 986 (1908) State v. Spivey, 151 N.C. 676 , 65 S.E. 995 (1909) State v. Norman, 153 N.C. 591 , 68 S.E. 917 (1910) State v. Wiggins, 171 N.C. 813 , 89 S.E. 58 (1916) State v. McIver, 176 N.C. 718 , 96 S.E. 902 (1918) State v. Yearwood, 178 N.C. 813 , 101 S.E. 513 (1919) State v. Palmer, 178 N.C. 822 , 101 S.E. 506 (1919) State v. Robinson, 181 N.C. 516 , 106 S.E. 155 (1921) State v. McLeod, 196 N.C. 542 , 146 S.E. 409 (1929) State v. McLeod, 198 N.C. 649 , 152 S.E. 895 (1930) State v. Lee, 211 N.C. 326 , 190 S.E. 234 (1939) State v. Dorsett, 245 N.C. 47 , 95 S.E.2d 90 (1956) State v. Rowland, 263 N.C. 353 , 139 S.E.2d 661 (1965)
Ohio State v. Dickerson, 77 Ohio St. 34 , 82 N.E. 969 , 122 Am. St. Rep. 479 , 11 Ann. Cas. 1181, 13 L.R.A. (N.S.) 341 (1907) State v. Hall, 3 Ohio N.P. 125 , 4 Ohio Super. & C.P. 147 Baum v. State, 27 Ohio C.C. 569 State v. Brooks, 1 Ohio Dec. Reprint 407 , 9 West. L.J. 109
Oklahoma Buck v. State, 77 Okla. Crim. 17 , 138 P.2d 115 (1943)
Pennsylvania Commonwealth v. Hoffman, 52 Pa. Super. 272 (1912)
South Carolina State v. Brown, 103 S.C. 437 , 88 S.E. 21 , 1916D L.R.A. 1295 (1916)
Tennessee Copley v. State, 153 Tenn. 189 , 281 S.W. 460 , 462 (1926)
Texas Parker v. State, 46 Tex. Crim. 461 , 80 S.W. 1008 , 108 Am. St. Rep. 1021 , 3 Ann. Cas. 893 (1904)
West Virginia State v. McKinney, 88 W. Va. 400 , 106 S.E. 894 (1921)
 Illinois People v. Pfanschmidt, 262 Ill. 411 , 104 N.E. 804 , 1915A Ann. Cas. 1171 (1914) People v. Wolf, 334 Ill. 218 , 165 N.E. 619 (1929) People v. Griffin, 48 Ill. App. 2d 148 , 198 N.E.2d 115 (1964)
Indiana Stout v. State, 174 Ind. 395 , 92 N.E. 161 , 1912D Ann. Cas. 37 (1910) Ruse v. State, 186 Ind. 237 , 115 N.E. 778 L.R.A. 1917E 726 (1917)
Iowa McClurg v. Brenton, 123 Iowa 368 , 98 N.W. 881 (1904) State v. Grba, 196 Iowa 241 , 194 N.W. 250 (1923)
Montana State v. Storm, 125 Mont. 346 , 238 P.2d 1161 (1952)
Nebraska Brott v. State, 70 Neb. 395 , 97 N.W. 593 , 63 L.R.A. 789 (1903)
New York People v. Whitlock, 183 A.D. 482 , 171 N.Y.S. 109 , 36 N.Y.C.R. 524 (1918)
 See 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915)
16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1095 at 564-65 (1918)
22A C.J.S. Criminal Law § 646 at 533-34 (1961)
26 Am. Jur. Homicide § 331 at 379-80 (1940)
13 Am.Jur.2d Burglary § 44 (1964)
29 Am.Jur.2d Evidence §§ 378-79 (1967)
2 Elliott, Evidence § 1253 (1904)
1 Underhill, Criminal Evidence § 13 at 250-51 (5th ed. 1956)
9 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 248 (1952)
And the cases cited in the above nearly all majority cases stress that a proper foundation be laid.
 See State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) State v. Barnes, 289 S.W. 562 (Mo. 1926).
 In general e.g. see Richardson v. State, 145 Ala. 46 , 41 So. 82 , 8 Ann. Cas. 108 (1906) Rolen v. State, 191 Ark. 1120 , 89 S.W.2d 614 (1936) People v. Pfanschmidt, 262 Ill. 411 , 104 N.E. 804 , 1915A Ann. Cas. 1171 (1914) State v. Adams, 85 Kan. 435 , 116 P. 608 , 35 L.R.A. (N.S.) 870 (1911) State v. Harrison, 149 La. 83 , 88 So. 696 (1921) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1926) State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) State v. Steely, 327 Mo. 16 , 33 S.W.2d 938 (1930) State v. Freyer, 330 Mo. 62 , 48 S.W.2d 894 (1932) cf. McDonald v. State, 145 Ark. 581 , 224 S.W. 976 (1920).
 Experience of the dog e.g. see 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915) Holub v. State, 116 Ark. 227 , 172 S.W. 878 (1916) Adams v. State, 149 Ark. 669 , 235 S.W. 372 (1921) Schell v. State, 72 Ga. App. 804 , 35 S.E.2d 325 (1945) State v. Evans, 115 Kan. 538 , 224 P. 492 (1924) Alsept v. Commonwealth, 240 Ky. 395 , 42 S.W.2d 517 (1931) Brummett v. Commonwealth, 263 Ky. 460 , 92 S.W.2d 787 (1936) State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) Carter v. State, 106 Miss. 507 , 64 So. 215 (1914) State v. Barnes, 289 S.W. 562 (Mo. 1926) State v. Yearwood, 178 N.C. 813 , 101 S.E. 513 (1919) State v. McKinney, 88 W. Va. 400 , 106 S.E. 894 (1921) cf. Kelly v. Commonwealth, 259 Ky. 770 , 83 S.W.2d 489 (1935).
 Reliability of the dog e.g. see 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915) Davis v. State, 46 Fla. 137 , 35 So. 76 (1903) Mitchell v. State, 202 Ga. 247 , 42 S.E.2d 767 (1964) State v. Adams, 85 Kan. 435 , 116 P. 608 , 35 L.R.A. (N.S.) 870 (1911) State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1926) Hinton v. State, 175 Miss. 308 , 166 So. 762 (1936) State v. Robinson, 181 N.C. 516 , 106 S.E. 155 (1921) cf. McDonald v. State, 145 Ark. 581 , 224 S.W. 976 (1920) State v. Moore, 129 N.C. 494 , 39 S.E. 626 , 55 L.R.A. 96 (1901).
 Reputation of the dog e.g. see Holub v. State, 116 Ark. 227 , 172 S.W. 878 (1916) State v. Yearwood, 178 N.C. 813 , 101 S.E. 513 (1919).
 Skill, habit of the dog e.g. see Harris v. State, 17 Ga. App. 723 , 88 S.E. 121 (1916) Daugherty v. Commonwealth, 293 Ky. 147 , 168 S.W.2d 564 (1943) State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) Yearwood v. State, 178 N.C. 813 , 101 S.E. 513 (1919) cf. Kelly v. Commonwealth, 259 Ky. 770 , 83 S.W.2d 489 (1935).
 Training of the dog e.g. see Little v. State, 145 Ala. 662 , 39 So. 674 (1905) Hargrove v. State, 147 Ala. 97 , 41 So. 972 , 119 Am. St. Rep. 60 , 10 Ann. Cas. 1126 (1906) Gallant v. State, 167 Ala. 60 , 52 So. 739 (1910) Allen v. State, 147 Ala. 97 , 41 So. 972 , 119 Am. St. Rep. 60 , 10 Ann. Cas. 1126 (1906) Gallant v. State, 167 Ala. 60 , 52 So. 739 (1910) Allen v. State, 8 Ala. App. 228 , 62 So. 971 , 1917E L.R.A. 730 (1913) Loper v. State, 205 Ala. 216 , 87 So. 92 (1920) Moore v. State, 26 Ala. App. 607 , 164 So. 761 (1935) Cranford v. State, 130 Ark. 101 , 197 S.W. 19 (1917) Adams v. State, 149 Ark. 669 , 235 S.W. 372 (1921) Doyle v. State, 166 Ark. 505 , 226 S.W. 459 (1924) Davis v. State, 46 Fla. 137 , 35 So. 76 (1903) Fite v. State, 16 Ga. App. 22 , 84 S.E. 485 (1915) Evans v. State, 115 Kan. 538 , 224 P. 492 (1924) Denham v. Commonwealth, 119 Ky. 508 , 84 S.W. 538 (1905) Sprouse v. Commonwealth, 132 Ky. 269 , 116 S.W. 344 (1909) Blair v. Commonwealth, 181 Ky. 218 , 204 S.W. 67 (1918) Meyers v. Commonwealth, 194 Ky. 523 , 240 S.W. 71 (1922) Alsept v. Commonwealth, 240 Ky. 395 , 42 S.W.2d 517 (1931) Brummett v. Commonwealth, 263 Ky. 460 , 92 S.W.2d 787 (1936) Daugherty v. Commonwealth, 293 Ky. 147 , 168 S.W.2d 564 (1943) State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) Carter v. State, 106 Miss. 507 , 64 So. 215 (1914) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1926) Boatwright v. State, 143 Miss. 676 , 109 So. 710 (1926) Hinton v. State, 175 Miss. 308 , 166 So. 762 (1936) State v. Hunter, 143 N.C. 607 , 56 S.E. 547 , 118 Am. St. Rep. 830 (1907) State v. Spivey, 151 N.C. 676 , 65 S.E. 995 (1909) State v. Norman, 153 N.C. 591 , 68 S.E. 917 (1910) State v. Yearwood, 178 N.C. 813 , 101 S.E. 513 (1919) Buck v. State, 77 Okla. Crim. 17 , 138 P.2d 115 (1943) Copley v. State, 153 Tenn. 189 , 281 S.W. 460 (1926) State v. McKinney, 88 W. Va. 400 , 106 S.E. 894 (1921) cf. Sprouse v. Commonwealth, 132 Ky. 269 , 116 S.W. 344 (1909).
 State v. Davis, 154 La. 295 , 97 So. 449 (1923) State v. McIver, 176 N.C. 718 , 96 S.E. 902 (1918) State v. Brooks, 1 Ohio Dec. Reprint 407 , 9 West L.J. 1096.
 Brott v. State, 70 Neb. 395 , 97 N.W. 593 , 63 L.R.A. 789 (1903) People v. Pfanschmidt, 262 Ill. 411 , 104 N.E. 804 (1914) cf. State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) State v. Dickerson, 77 Ohio St. 34 , 82 N.E. 969 , 122 Am. St. Rep. 479 , 11 Ann. Cas. 1181, 13 L.R.A. (N.S.) 341 (1907).
 Richardson v. State, 145 Ala. 46 , 41 So. 82 , 8 Ann. Cas. 108 (1906) Aaron v. State, 271 Ala. 70 , 122 So. 2d 360 (1960) State v. Adams, 85 Kan. 435 , 116 P. 608 , 35 L.R.A. (N.S.) 870 (1911) State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) State v. White, 195 S.W. 994 (Mo. 1917) State v. Storm, 125 Mont. 346 , 238 P.2d 1161 (1951) cf. Schell v. State, 72 Ga. App. 804 , 35 S.E.2d 325 (1945). Also see: 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915) 16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1095 at 564 (1918) 22A C.J.S. Criminal Law § 646 at 533 (1961) 29 Am.Jur.2d Evidence § 378 at 429 (1967) 9 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 248 (1952).
 State v. Brown, 103 S.C. 437 , 88 S.E. 21 , 1916D L.R.A. 1295 (1916) also see Fite v. State, 16 Ga. App. 22 , 84 S.E. 485 (1915).
 State v. Netherton, 133 Kan. 685 , 3 P.2d 495 (1931) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1920) State v. Steely, 327 Mo. 16 , 33 S.W.2d 938 (1930) also see preceding footnote cf. State v. Norman, 153 N.C. 591 , 68 S.E. 917 (1910).
 See 16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1095 (1918)
22A C.J.S. Criminal Law § 646 (1916)
23 C.J.S. Criminal Law § 907 (1961)
26 Am. Jur. Homicide § 463 (1940)
29 Am.Jur.2d Evidence §§ 378-79 (1967)
30 Am.Jur.2d Evidence § 1146 (1967)
1 Underhill, Criminal Evidence § 130 (5th ed. 1956)
2 Wharton, Criminal Evidence § 668 (12th ed. 1955)
5 Minn. L . Rev. 228, 229 (1921)
E.g. see Meyers v. Commonwealth, 194 Ky. 523 , 240 S.W 71 (1922) State v. King, 144 La. 430 , 80 So. 615 (1919) State v. Rasco, 239 Mo. 535 , 144 S.W. 449 (1912) Parker v. State, 46 Tex. Crim. 461 , 80 S.W. 1008 , 108 Am. St. Rep. 1021 , 3 Ann. Cas. 893 (1904).
 94 A.L.R. 413 , 415-16 (1935) see State v. McLeod, 196 N.C. 542 , 146 S.E. 409 (1929).
 See: 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915)
22A C.J.S. Criminal Law § 646 at 534-5 (1961)
29 Am.Jur.2d Evidence §§ 378-79 at 431 (1967)
1 Underhill, Criminal Evidence § 130 at 250-51 (5th ed. 1956)
E.g. see: Fite v. State, 16 Ga. App. 22 , 84 S.E. 485 (1915) Mitchell v. State, 202 Ga. 247 , 42 S.E.2d 767 (1947) Blair v. Commonwealth, 181 Ky. 218 , 204 S.W. 67 (1918) Bullock v. Commonwealth, 249 Ky. 1 , 60 S.W.2d 108 , 94 A.L.R. 407 (1933) Harris v. State, 143 Miss. 102 , 108 So. 446 (1926) State v. Shawley, 334 Mo. 352 , 67 S.W.2d 74 (1933) State v. Wiggins, 171 N.C. 813 , 89 S.E. 58 (1916) cf. State v. Dickerson, 77 Ohio St. 34 , 82 N.E. 969 , 122 Am. St. Rep. 479 , 11 Ann. Cas. 1181, 13 L.R.A. (N.S.) 341 (1907).
 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915).
 Commonwealth v. LePage, Mass., 226 N.E.2d 200 (1967) State v. Rowland, 263 N.C. 353 , 139 S.E.2d 661 (1967).
 See: 16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1584 at 774 (1918)
23 C.J.S. Criminal Law § 920 at 649 n. 37 (1961)
94 A.L.R. 413 , 416, 423-25 (1935)
1 Wigmore § 177 n. 3 (3d. ed. 1940)
cf. 9 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 248, 252 (1952) which points out that the wrong man may be identified Meyers v. Commonwealth, 194 Ky. 523 , 240 S.W. 71 , 94 A.L.R. 413 , 424 (1922).
 E.g. see State v. McKinney, 88 W. Va. 400 , 106 S.E. 894 (1921) McClurg v. Brenton, 123 Iowa 368 , 98 N.W. 881 (1904) State v. White, 195 S.W. 994 (Mo. 1917).
 See supra. footnote 17 also see 8 R.C.L. Criminal Law § 177 (1915) 16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1584 at 774 n. 59C (2) (1918) cf. State v. Moore, 129 N.C. 494 , 39 S.E. 626 , 55 L.R.A. 96 (1901).
 See supra. footnote 3 1 Underhill Criminal Evidence § 130 at 250 (5th ed. 1956) feels that Minnesota would follow the minority, Crosby v. Moriarty, 148 Minn. 201 , 181 N.W. 199 (1921). But Minnesota is categorized as a majority state because like South Carolina it has a statute which allows such evidence for the purpose of identification, see State v. Brown, 103 S.C. 437 , 88 S.E. 21 , 1916D L.R.A. 1295 (1916). But the proper foundation was not laid in Crosby, supra . See 94 A.L.R. 413 , 415 (1935) 29 Am.Jur.2d Evidence § 378 (1967).
 See 2 Wigmore § 177 at 637 (3d ed. 1940)
1 Underhill, § 130 at 250 (5th ed. 1956)
 See: Bullock v. Commonwealth, 241 Ky. 799 , 45 S.W.2d 449 (1932) Brott v. State, 70 Neb. 395 , 97 N.W. 593 , 63 L.R.A. 789 (1903) State v. Hall, 3 Ohio N.P. 125 , 4 Ohio Super. & C.P. 147 also see McWhorter, "The Bloodhound as a Witness", 54 Am. L. Rev. 109 (1924) 94 A.L.R. 413 , 418-19 (1935).
 2 Wigmore, Evidence § 177 at 636-37 (3d ed. 1940).
 See: 53 Am. Jur. Trial §§ 282, 610 (1945) 1 Underhill, Criminal Evidence § 130 at 250 (5th ed. 1956) (and cases cited therein).
 For a few cases following the majority view where the evidence was excluded see: Aaron v. State, 271 Ala. 70 , 122 So. 2d 360 (1960) McDonald v. State, 145 Ark. 581 , 224 S.W. 976 (1920) Allen v. Commonwealth, 26 Ky. L. Rptr. 807 , 82 S.W. 589 (1904) Sprouse v. Commonwealth, 132 Ky. 269 , 116 S.W. 344 (1909) Blair v. Commonwealth, 171 Ky. 319 , 188 S.W. 390 (1916) Bullock v. Commonwealth, 241 Ky. 799 , 45 S.W.2d 449 (1932) Carter v. State, 106 Miss. 507 , 64 So. 215 (1914) Copley v. State, 153 Tenn. 189 , 281 S.W. 460 (1926).
 See, generally: 16 C.J. Criminal Law § 1095 at 565 (1918)
22A C.J.S. Criminal Law § 646 (1961)
58 Am. Jur. Witness § 648 (1948)
McWhorter, "The Bloodhound as a Witness"
9 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 248, 253 (1952)
 See e.g. State v. Fixley, 118 Kan. 1 , 233 P. 796 (1925) Meyers v. Commonwealth, 194 Ky. 523 , 240 S.W. 71 (1922) State v. Freyer, 330 Mo. 62 , 48 S.W.2d 894 (1932) cf. State v. Hall, 3 Ohio N.P. 125 , 4 Ohio Super. & C.P. 147.
 See 9 Ill. L . Rev. 191 (1915) discusses People v. Pfanschmidt and states the minority view.
 An earlier Indiana case Stout v. State, 174 Ind. 395 , 92 N.E. 161 , 1912D Ann. Cas. 37 (1910) had not decided the question.
 An earlier Iowa case, McClurg v. Brenton, 123 Iowa 368 , 98 N.W. 881 (1904) had not decided the question.
 See 94 A.L.R. 413 , 416 (1935).
 It should be noted, however, that under Maryland Rule 729 d. 2., that in all jury trials conducted after September 1, 1967 such evidence must be received out of the presence of the jury. We do not now decide whether or not the violation of this rule would be reversible error. The present trial was begun on March 9, 1967 and concluded on March 10, 1967.
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Gallant- MSO- 489 - History
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3581-00 | Axis ST Clear Body for TLR® 22T&trade 4.0 & AE T6.2
Madison Square Garden Sports : Gerard Gallant Named Rangers Head Coach
NEW YORK, June 16, 2021 - New York Rangers President and General Manager Chris Drury announced today that the team has named Gerard Gallant Head Coach.
'I would like to welcome Gerard to the New York Rangers,' said James Dolan, Executive Chairman, Madison Square Garden Sports Corp. 'Gerard's proven track record has made him one of the league's most sought-after coaches, and we are fortunate to have him as part of the team. I have no doubt that he will play a critical role in helping us take the next steps to building a championship-caliber team.'
'We are excited to announce that Gerard will be the next Head Coach of the New York Rangers,' Drury said. 'His vast experience and success behind the bench at several levels make him the ideal choice to lead our team on the ice.'
Gallant becomes the 36th head coach in franchise history. He has coached 541 career NHL games as a head coach over parts of nine seasons with the Columbus Blue Jackets, Florida Panthers, and Vegas Golden Knights, posting a 270-216-4-51 (W-L-T-OT) record (.550 points percentage). Gallant has also guided his team to a playoff appearance in each of his last three full seasons as a head coach, and he has an 18-15 record in 33 career playoff contests as an NHL head coach (.545 winning percentage). Gallant has been a finalist for the Jack Adams Award, presented annually to the coach 'adjudged to have contributed the most to his team's success,' twice in his last five seasons as an NHL head coach (2015-16 with Florida and 2017-18 with Vegas). He won the award in 2017-18.
Gallant most recently coached in the NHL with the Golden Knights for parts of three seasons (2017-18 - 2019-20). During his tenure in Vegas, he helped guide the Golden Knights to a 118-75-20 record in 213 games (.601 points percentage), as well as a Stanley Cup Final appearance in 2017-18. While Gallant was the Golden Knights' Head Coach, Vegas ranked ninth in the NHL in wins and points percentage, ranked 10th in the NHL in goals per game (3.11), tied for eighth in the NHL in goals against per game (2.83), tied for fourth in the NHL in shots on goal per game (33.6), ranked fifth in the NHL in shots on goal against per game (30.1), and ranked third in the NHL in shot attempts percentage at 5-on-5 (52.8%).
Prior to his tenure with Vegas, Gallant served as the Panthers' head coach for parts of three seasons (2014-15 - 2016-17). He joined Florida following a season in which the Panthers recorded the second-fewest points in the NHL. Gallant guided the Panthers to a 25-point improvement in his first season as the team's Head Coach, and helped the team win the Atlantic Division in his second season (47-26-9 record 103 points).
In addition to serving as a head coach in the NHL, Gallant has served as a head coach and assistant coach at several levels throughout his career. He spent three seasons as the Head Coach of the Saint John Sea Dogs in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) from 2009-10 - 2011-12. During his tenure in Saint John, Gallant received the Brian Kilrea Award (Canadian Hockey League Coach of the Year) and Ron Lapointe Trophy (QMJHL Coach of the Year) twice (2009-10 and 2010-11), helped Saint John win the QMJHL Championship twice (2010-11 and 2011-12), and helped Saint John win the Memorial Cup in 2010-11. He served as an assistant coach with the Montreal Canadiens for two seasons (2012-13 and 2013-14), the New York Islanders for two seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), and the Columbus Blue Jackets for parts of four seasons (2000-01 - 2003-04) prior to becoming Columbus' head coach during the 2003-04 season.
Internationally, the Summerside, Prince Edward Island native has coached in several tournaments. Most recently, Gallant served as Canada's head coach at the 2021 IIHF World Championship and guided the team to a gold medal. He also helped Canada earn a gold medal as an assistant coach at the 2007 IIHF World Championship and a silver medal as an assistant coach at the 2017 IIHF World Championship. Gallant also served as an assistant coach with Team North America at the 2016 World Cup of Hockey.
Prior to beginning his coaching career, Gallant played parts of 11 seasons in the NHL with the Detroit Red Wings and Tampa Bay Lightning. A left winger, Gallant skated in 615 career NHL games, registering 211 goals and 269 assists for 480 points, along with a plus-58 rating and 1,674 penalty minutes. He was named to the NHL's Second All-Star Team in 1988-89 as he established career-highs in goals (39), assists (54), and points (93) with Detroit. Gallant also recorded 39 points (18 goals, 21 assists) in 58 career Stanley Cup Playoff games and helped the Red Wings advance to the Campbell Conference Finals in two consecutive seasons (1986-87 and 1987-88).
Madison Square Garden Sports Corp. published this content on 16 June 2021 and is solely responsible for the information contained therein. Distributed by Public, unedited and unaltered, on 16 June 2021 21:17:05 UTC.