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The Douglas C-51 was the designation given to a single DC-3 impressed directly from the production lines after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Like the aircraft designated as C-49s and C-50s, the single C-51 was powered by two Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines (in this case the -83 model). It differed from the standard military C-47 in having its passenger door on the right hand side, but it probably gained its separate designation because it was being built for Canadian Colonial Airways, while the majority of impressed aircraft were being constructed for American airlines.
Douglas C-51 - History
South Africans have served in the British Armed Forces for close on two-hundred years(1), and Rhodesian-born men and women have followed suit, having served in the British Forces for almost a century! South Africa and Northern and Southern Rhodesia have produced approximately 39 Southern African-born Brigadiers and General-Officers in the British Army and Royal Marines, the Royal Navy and Royal Air-Force, including at least one Field Marshal(2). They comprise seventeen Brigadiers and Generals in the British army ten Admirals in the Royal Navy eleven officers of Air-Rank in the Royal air Force, while sixteen have been knighted for service to the British Crown, the British Defence Force and the British people. Southern Africans who have served as General Officers of the British Armed Forces have commanded various British and Commonwealth formations, in various campaigns and wars, in the United Kingdom and abroad. Their record is truly remarkable.
The Early Years (1856-1913)
General Abraham Josias Cloete:
"Father of the British Army"
The first Southern African to attain the exalted rank of General-Officer in the British Defence Force was General Sir Abraham Josias Cloete(3), who was commissioned in the British Army during the Napoleonic Wars and was promoted Major-General on the 31 August 1855, and later full General on the 25 October 1871(4), having commanded the Windward and Leeward Islands in the West indies(1856-1861), being placed on the retired list in 1877.
Born at Cape Town on the 7 August 1794, Cloete came of an illustrious Cape Colonial family. He attended the Military college at Great Marlow and was commissioned a cornet in the 15th Hussars in June 1809, aged fourteen-years and ten months! During his military career Cloete was to serve with the 15th Hussars and 21st Light Dragoons(5) in the United Kingdom (Burdett and Luddite riots, 1811), India (Mahratta War, 1817-1819), on the Island of Tristan da Cunha, and at the Cape of Good Hope (at one stage serving as Aide-de-Camp to the Governor, Lord Charles Somerset). He was at the time of his death in 1886 Colonel of the 19th Regiment of Foot (Princess of Wales's Own Yorkshire Regiment)(6). General Cloete served in the British Army for over sixty-years and was known as "the Father of the British Army".
Major-General Christopher Teesdale, V.C.
The first South African-born recipient of the Victoria Cross
Major-General Christopher Charles Teesdale, Royal Artillery was the next Southern-African born soldier to attain the rank of General officer in the British Army. Born in Grahamstown, Eastern Cape, in 1833, he was commissioned in the Royal Artillery and served in the Crimean War. Teesdale was awarded the Victoria Cross for his endeavours during the Crimean War at the Battle of Kars. On the 29 September 1855, Lieutenant Teesdale, commanding a force engaged in the defence of the most advanced section of the works, threw himself into the midst of the enemy and by so doing, encouraged the garrison to implement a vigorous attack on the Russians, driving them out. Teesdale was however captured and remained a prisoner of the Russians until 1856. Apart from the Victoria Cross, Teesdale was also awarded the Legion d' Honeur and an Honorary C.B.. Teesdale officially received the V.C. on the 21 November 1857, receiving this most prestigious award from Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, at Windsor Castle.
Thus, it would seem that Teesdale was the first South African born soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross, whereas it is popularly believed that Lieutenant-Colonel J.P.H. Crowe, 78th Highlanders and 10th North Lincolnshire regiment was the first. Teesdale subsequently served as extra equerry to Queen Victoria(7), and was promoted Major-General in 1887, being made a knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George (KCMG) that same year. Teesdale passed away in 1893 and was buried in Sussex.
General C.W.H. Douglas
The Gordon Highlander from Cape Town
It is interesting to note that one of the British Generals during the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902), was himself South African-born. General Sir Charles Whittington Horsley Douglas was born at Cape Town on the 17 July 1850. He was gazetted to a commission in the 92nd Gordon Highlanders, by purchase on the 16 December 1869. Douglas was to serve in the second Afghanistan War (1879-1880)(8).
Douglas then served with the "Gay Gordons" in his native South Africa during the First Anglo-Boer War (1880-1881) and in Egypt (1885), being appointed deputy Assistant Adjutant-General and quartermaster-General. Douglas was appointed Aide-de-Camp to Queen Victoria with the rank of Colonel in 1898, and during the second Anglo-Boer War, he initially served as Assistant Adjutant-General on the Headquarters Staff of General Sir Redvers Buller, before being appointed Commander of the 9th Brigade, South African Field Force. Douglas was to assume the mantle of Chief of the Imperial General Staff during the First World War, and passed away in October 1914, having served as an assistant to Lord Kitchener at the Ministry of War.
Admiral John F.L.P. Maclear:
South African-born officer of Flag Rank in the Royal Navy
The next southern African-born officer to attain the rank of General-officer in any of the three services of the British armed forces was Admiral John F.L.P. Maclear. Born at the Cape of Good Hope on the 27 June 1838, Maclear was the son of Sir Thomas Maclear, the celebrated Astronomer-Royal at the Cape. He entered the Royal Navy in 1851 (serving aboard H.M.S. Castor) and subsequently served in 8th Frontier War in South Africa (1851 - 1853) the Crimean War (1854 - 1856), on board H.M.S. Algiers in the Baltic and Black Sea at Jeddah (1858) the Second Chinese War (1860 - 1862), aboard H.M.S. Sphinx, and in The Abyssinian Campaign (1868).
Maclear also served as Commander, under Sir George Nares, of the famous scientific exploratory vessel, H.M.S. Challenger. He was promoted Rear-Admiral (1890), Vice-Admiral on the retired list (1897) and Admiral (1903)(9). Admiral Maclear was possibly the first Southern-African born man to reach flag rank in the Royal Navy(10)
The British Army and Royal Marines:
During World War One South African-born General officers in any of the three arms of the British Defence Force included General Sir W.H. Douglas (who as mentioned afore served as assistant to Lord Kitchener and passed away only months after the war had commenced), and Generals' Sir George Grey Aston and Jan C. Smuts (all British Army)(11)
Major-General George Grey Aston,
Major-General George Grey Aston was born at the Cape in 1861, and was descended on his mother's side from a celebrated Afrikaans family, namely the Faure's. Aston joined the Royal Marine Artillery in 1879, and later served in the Sudan (1884)(12), and in the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899-1902). He served as a Brigadier-General on the General Staff in South-Africa (1908-1912)(13), and was Knighted in 1913. Aston commanded the British Expedition to Dunkirk and Ostend during the last days of 1914 and commanded the Royal Marine Artillery Division (1914-1917). Major-General Aston retired in 1917, having also been appointed Colonel Commandant of the Royal Marine Artillery (1914).
Lieutenant-General (Later Field Marshal) J.C. Smuts
Progenitor of the Royal Air Force
Lieutenant-General J.C. Smuts initially served with the Union's forces during the German South West African Campaign before being pppointed Commander-in-Chief of the British and Allied troops in German East Africa (1916), with the rank of Acting-Lieutenant-General in the British Army. Born near Riebeeck West, in the Western Cape, in 1870, Smuts had served during the Second Anglo-Boer War as a General in the Boer forces.
He was later appointed a member of the British War Cabinet, often visiting the Western Front, and at one time was offered Command of the British Forces in Palestine, but declined.
Smuts was subsequently appointed by the British prime Minister, Lloyd George, to form a Select Committee, with himself as chairman, being tasked to investigate the question of Air-Defence, the request being made soon after the Zeppelin Air-Raids of July, 1917. Smuts advocated the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps (R.F.C.) and Royal Naval Air Service (R.N.A.S.), and subsequently drafted the Act creating the Royal Air Force(14), and thus may rightfully be termed "The Father of the Royal Air Force". Smuts attained the zenith of his military career when he was promoted Field Marshal in the British Army during the Second World War (1941).
Vice-Admiral (later Admiral) J.B. Eustace
Admiral John Bridges Eustace was the eldest son of John Thomas Eustace, of Wynberg, South Africa(15), and was born at the Cape of Good Hope in January 1861. Joining the Royal Navy, he was educated at H.M.S. Britannia the Royal Navy, and served in H.M.S. London and Dragon on the East Coast of Africa and in the Persian Gulf (1880-1884) during the suppression of the slave trade on the East Coast of Africa.
Eustace Commanded H.M.S. Hood (1897-1900) and also served as transport officer with the expeditionary force to China (1900)(16) and during the Venezuela Blockade (December 1902-February 1903), and commanded H.M.S. Fox (1904-1907). Eustace was promoted Rear-Admiral in 1913, and served with the Ministry of munitions during the First World War, being promoted Vice-admiral in 1918. Eustace was subsequently promoted Admiral on the retired list(17).
The inter-War Years (1919-1938)
Following the cessation of the First World War, at least two Southern-African born men were to reach the zenith of their careers, attaining senior rank in the Royal Navy and British Army respectively, namely Vice-Admiral Vincent Molteno, Royal Navy and Brigadier Ronald Gervers, Royal Engineers.
Vice Admiral Vincent Barkley Molteno: Royal Navy
A veteran of the Battle of Jutland
Vice Admiral Vincent Barkley Molteno(18) was born in Cape-Town, and was the son of the first Prime Minister of the Cape Colony, Sir John Molteno. He joined the Royal Navy, and in 1893 took part in the landings at Vitu, Zanzibar, serving as a Lieutenant with the Naval Brigade under Commander Linley. He was mentioned in despatches and awarded the General African Medal, Gambia, 1894, with Clasp. Molteno was appointed flag captain of the Third Cruiser Squadron, in December 1913. During the first year of World War l, Molteno served as Flag Captain of H.M.S. Antrim before commanding the Battleship, H.M.S. Redoubtable which carried out the bombardment of the Belgian coast. Molteno was appointed Captain of the Cruiser, H.M.S. Warrior(19), and commanded the Warrior during the Battle of Jutland in May, 1916, where(20):
"The Warrior went through terrible experiences. At one time the concentrated fire of the German Dreadnoughts fell upon her the Defence and Black Prince were blown up beside her. Captain Molteno's ship suffered about 100 casualties. The wounded and the rest of the crew were all saved when she was in a sinking condition after being in tow for several hours. The gallant captain was cheered by the ship's company when they were all safely landed."
The Warrior was so badly damaged that she was taken in tow by H.M.S. Engadine but foundered and sank on the 1 June 1916. Molteno was promoted Rear-Admiral in 1921, and Vice-Admiral in 1926 while on the retired list, having served as Aide-de-Camp to King George V in 1920.
Brigadier Francis R.S. Gervers, Royal Engineers
Brigadier Francis R.S. Gervers(21), Royal Engineers, born at Kimberley in South Africa, served with distinction during The First World War. He had attended the R.M.A. Woolwich, and served during the Mohmand, Malakand, and Tirah Campaigns (1897-1898). During The First World War, Gervers served in India and Afghanistan. He was promoted Brigadier in 1928(22). He died in 1971, two days after his ninety-eighth birthday! Gervers' brother Ronald Gervers was married to Dorothy Black, the South African actress.
The Second World War (1939-1945)
The British Army and Royal Marines:
It was during the Second World War, however, that Southern African-born senior-ranking officers in the British Army, Royal Navy and Royal Air-Force were to come to the fore.
Field Marshal J.C. Smuts
South African Prime Minister, and right-hand-man of the British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, General Jan Christian Smuts, played a prominent role in the war, being honoured with promotion to the rank of Field Marshal in the British Army in April, 1941. During the war Smuts helped plan the D-Day landings, attending the final conference on the landings at St. Paul's School, on the 15 May, 1944, when His Majesty the King, Winston Churchill, British Chiefs of Staff, Commanders of the Expedition, and many principal staff officers were present. Smuts subsequently crossed to Normandy with Winston Churchill on the 10 June 1944, only four days after the landings on the 6 June.
Lieutenant General (Later General) Sir E.C. Mansergh
C.O. of the 5th Indian Infantry Division in Burma 1944-1945
Other Southern African-born senior ranking officers of the British Army during the war include Lieutenant-General Eric Carden Robert Mansergh(23). South African-born and educated at Rondebosch High School, Cape Town, Mansergh initially attended the R.M.A. Woolwich and was commissioned in The Royal Field Artillery in 1920. He later served with the British Military mission to Iraq (1931-1935), and was awarded the Military Cross (M.C.) in 1932.
During the Second World War, Mansergh rose from Major to Acting Major-General, being promoted to the rank of substantive Major-General in 1946, and acting Lieutenant-General the same year! Mansergh served in Eritrea, Abyssinia, the Western Desert, Libya, the Middle East, and in Arakan, Assam, and Burma. He was appointed Commander of the 5th Indian Infantry Division in 1945, and under Mansergh's command, the 5th Indian Division was engaged in stiff fighting at Yamethin, Shwemyo Bluff, and Pyinmana(24). He then commanded the 5th Indian Division in Indonesia(25) and was Later appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Allied Forces in The Netherlands East indies (1946). He commanded the Allied Forces during the fighting at Surabaya, in Java, against nationalistic elements intent on wresting independence from the Dutch. General Mansergh later became Commander-in-Chief, N.A.T.O. Forces (1953-1956).
Major-General Edmund Hakewill-Smith, Royal Scots Fusiliers
C.O. of the 52nd (Lowland) Division at Walcheren, 1944
Major-General Edmund Hakewill-Smith(26), Royal Scots Fusiliers, born in Kimberley, South Africa and educated at "Bishops"(27) had graduated from the R.M.C. Sandhurst before being commissioned into the Royal Scots Fusiliers during the First World War, and was awarded the M.C. (1915). During World War Two, Hakewill-Smith was appointed commanding officer of the 52nd Scottish (Lowland) Division, which he commanded in north west Europe (namely, France, Holland, Belgium, and Germany), and also served as overall commander of the Allied assault, and subsequent capture of Walcheren Island in 1944(28). Hakewill-Smith was awarded the C.B.E. (1944), and C.B.(1945) and commanded the 52nd Division until it's disbandment in 1946(29). He also served as President of the War Crimes Trial of German Field Marshal Albert Von Kesselring in Venice, Italy, during May 1947. His later honours include that of Colonel of the Royal Scots Fusiliers (1946-1957), and Deputy Constable and Lieutenant Governor of Windsor Castle.
Major-General A.H.E. Reading, Royal Marines
Major-General Arnold Hughes Eagleton Reading, Royal Marines, C.B.E., born at Heilbron in the Orange Free State (OFS) on the 3 April 1896, was educated at Cranleigh School, in the United Kingdom, and was commissioned a second-lieutenant in the Royal Marines, in August, 1914. Reading served during the Second World War and was promoted Major-General in 1946, and was placed on the retired list in 1947. There is a memorial plaque dedicated to him at the Royal Marine Museum at Portsmouth.
Additional Southern-African-born officers who distinguished themselves during the war include Brigadier Eustace Arderne(30) (born in Cape Town), Royal Durham Light infantry, who commanded the 25th Indian Infantry Brigade in Italy Brigadier Walter Douglas Campbell Greenacre(31), Welsh Guards, who was born in Durban, Natal, and a member of a distinguished Durban family, commanded the 6th Guards Armoured Brigade(32) in North-West Europe(1944-1945), being awarded the D.S.O (1945) and Brigadier Dudley Wrangel Clarke, who founded the famous British Army's Commando Regiment during the second world war.
The Royal Air-Force was also to furnish its share of South African-born officers of Air Rank.
Air-Vice-Marshal Sir Christopher Joseph Quinton Brand, Royal Air Force
Commanded No 10 Group, R.A.F., during the Battle of Britain
Air-Vice-Marshal Sir Christopher Joseph Quinton Brand(33), Kimberley-born, and educated at the Marist Brothers School in Johannesburg, Commanded No. 10 Fighter Group during the Battle of Britain, retiring from the R.A.F. in 1943. He had joined the Royal Flying Corps (R.F.C.) during World War I, and ended up as an air-ace with 13 victories, being awarded the D.S.O., M.C. and D.F.C..
Air-Vice-Marshal (later Air Marshal Sir) Leonard Horatio Slatter, Royal Air Force
Commander-in-Chief of Coastal Command during the last days of World War Two
Air-Vice-Marshal (later Sir) Leonard Horatio Slatter(34), born at Durban, and educated at Dale College, Kingwilliamstown, in the Eastern Cape, served with the R.N.A.S. during the First World War and was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (D.S.C.) and Bar, as well as the D.F.C., accounting for six German aircraft. He commanded a Bomber squadron in Russia with the Allied Expeditionary force following world war one, and was awarded the O.B.E.. Slatter formed and commanded the R.A.F.'s High Speed Flight which won the Schneider Trophy in Venice 1927, the first time the trophy had been won by the RAF, and also undertook a solo flight from England to South Africa. During the second world war, Slatter commanded the R.A.F. and Allied Air Formations during the Eritrean/Abyssinian Campaign (1940-1941). He was awarded the C.B. (1941) and later commanded No. 201 (Naval Co-Operation) Group in the Middle East (1942), being knighted that same year. Slatter then commanded No. 15 (Coastal Command) Group in the U.K. (1943-1945), and was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Coastal Command in 1945(35).
Air-Vice-Marshal (later Air Chief Marshal Sir) H.W.L. "Dingbat" Saunders
Johannesburg-born Air-Vice-Marshal (later Sir) Hugh William Lumsden "Dingbat" Saunders(36) was educated at the Marist Brothers college in Johannesburg. Upon the advent of the first world war, Saunders initially served with the Witwatersrand rifles and South African Horse, before transferring to the Royal Flying Corps in 1917. During the Second World War, Saunders was appointed commanding officer of No. 11 Group, Fighter Command (1942-1944), and in 1945 was appointed Air-Marshal commanding the R.A.F. in Burma. After the war, Saunders went on to become Inspector-General of the R.A.F.(1949-1950), being promoted Air Chief Marshal in 1950. In 1951, Saunders assumed the mantle of Commander-in-Chief of the Air Forces in Western Europe.(37)
Air-Vice-Marshal (later Air Vice-Marshal Sir) Leslie Oswald Brown
Commanded No 4 Group, A.E.A.F. over North West Europe
Another Durban-born member of the Royal Air Force, namely Air-Vice-Marshal Sir Leslie Oswald Brown(38), R.A.F., also distinguished himself during World War II. Brown was educated at Hilton College, Natal, and served with the R.N.A.S. and the R.A.F. during World War I(39). He saw service on the Western front, and was awarded the D.S.C. while serving in East Africa, and was also awarded the A.F.C. (1918) for work at the flying training school at Calshot.
Brown was promoted Air-Commodore in 1941, and served as Air-Officer-Commanding the Levant, being awarded the C.B.E. (1941). Promoted Substantive Air-Vice Marshal in 1944, Brown was given command of No. 84 Group, R.A.F., Allied Expeditionary Air Force (A.E.A.F.). while commanding the Group, Brown, although 51 years of age, still flew Spitfires and during one month notched no fewer than 62 hours flying time visiting the various wings under his command(40). Brown subsequently served as Commandant of the R.A.F. School of Land and Air Warfare, at Old Sarum. After retiring from the Royal Air Force, Brown returned to his native Durban.
The Senior Service: The Royal Navy
The Royal Navy was also to produce three Southern African-born officers of flag rank during the war, namely Vice-Admiral (later Admiral) Sir Neville Syfret, Vice-Admiral A. Eagleton Evans and Rear-Admiral Cosmo M. Graham.
Admiral Sir Neville Syfret,
officer commanding the Royal Navy's famous Force H in the Mediterranean
Edward Neville Syfret(41), born at Cape Town, was another of those indomitable "Old Bishop's" boys. He was the son of Edward Ridge Syfret of Cape Town, and joined the Royal Navy in 1906. During World War One, Syfret served as gunnery officer with H.M.S. Aurora(42), and aboard Centaur and Curacoa. Syfret began the second World War as a Captain, Commanding H.M.S. Rodney. Subsequently appointed secretary to the First Lord, he was promoted Rear-Admiral in 1940. He later took part in the epic convoy battles in the Mediterranean, being awarded the C.B.(1941), followed by his promotion to Vice-Admiral, whereupon he took over command of Force H. He thereafter commanded the Allied operations against the Vichy French in Madagascar (1942), and also commanded Force H during Operation Pedestal in August 1942. Operation Pedestal was the most important and hardest fought of all the convoy battles. The convoy managed to get much-needed supplies through to Malta which helped sustain the beleagured island until the siege was lifted. Syfret was also involved in the Allied landings in North-Africa (November, 1942) and in Sicily (July, 1943). This amazing Capetonian was appointed a K.B.E. in 1945, and was promoted Full Admiral in 1946, being appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Home Fleet (1946-1948), and was later placed on the retired list.
Vice-Admiral A.E. Evans, Royal Navy
In addition, Vice Admiral Alfred Englefield Evans(43), born in South Africa on the 30 January 1884, served as Head of the Naval Technical Mission in Ottawa, Canada, and member of the Supply Council (North America) during the Second World War. Evans was educated at Horris Hill School and at H.M.S. Britannia. Appointed a midshipman in 1900, Evans served during the First World War, being present at the Battle of Jutland (being mentioned-in-despatches) and finished the war as a Commander. Promoted Captain in 1924, Evans served as Chief of Staff, Africa Station, from 1927-1929. He also served as Commodore, South America Station (1933-1935), and as a Rear-Admiral, at Gibraltar (1937-1939). Promoted Vice-Admiral in June 1939, Evans was placed on the retired list the same year. During the war, Vice-Admiral Evans served as Head of the Naval Technical Mission in Ottawa, Canada, and was a member of the Supply Council (North America), addressing the Empire Club of Canada in November 1941. He died in December, 1944, just prior to the cessation of hostilities. Evans was also an accomplished cricketer and represented the Royal Navy from 1914 until his last match in 1925, and Hampshire county from 1919-1920.(44)
Rear-Admiral Cosmo Moray Graham, Royal Navy
Rear-Admiral Cosmo Moray Graham(45), R.N., was a member of an old and illustrious Capetonian and South-African family, the Grahams of Fintry. Born at the Cape, he entered the Royal Navy before the First World War, and was a Lieutenant-Commander upon the cessation of the war in 1918. Graham was promoted Captain in 1936, and held the appointment of Deputy Director of the Air Divison, the fore-runner of the Royal Navy's F.A.A. During the initial period of the second world war, Graham served as Senior Naval officer, Persian Gulf, and was promoted Rear-Admiral in 1941. He was then appointed Commodore, Burma Coast, in February 1942, and organised the subsequent evacuation from Rangoon before the port fell to the Japanese in early March, 1942. Graham then departed with some small naval craft for Akyab, which was also abandoned, on the 14, May 1942, due to the inexorable advance of the Japanese. Rear-Admiral Graham thereafter served as Flag-Officer-in-Charge on the Humber, and died in 1946.
The Post War Years (1946-2007)
The post-War years have also produced General Officers of the British Defence Force who can claim South Africa or Rhodesia as their place of birth.
The British Army:
Generals Sir W.A. Drummond, A. Sachs, P.F. Palmer, Sir M.D. Walker and Brigadiers G.M. Hunt-Davis and O. Collins
During the post-war period, it is of interest to note that the Royal Army Medical Corps produced at least three senior-ranked officers of southern African, and more specifically, South African birth.
Premier among these was Lieutenant-General Sir William Alexander Drummond, R.A.M.C.. Born in Cape Town in 1901, he was brought up and educated in South Africa, before his parents decided later to re-locate the family to the United Kingdom. Drummond attended St. Andrew's University, entering the R.A.M.C. in 1925. During the second world war he served in the Middle East, Iraq, Persia and Italy, and was Mentioned-in-despatches no less than five times! Following the war, Drummond was promoted temporary Major-General in 1953, and later served as Director-General of Army Medical Services (1956-1961), having in the process been promoted Lieutenant-General and knighted in 1957. Lieutenant-General Drummond retired from the R.A.M.C. in 1961, being appointed Colonel-Commandant of the R.A.M.C. (1961-1966). Drummond subsequently served as Deputy Director-General of the St. John's Ambulance association, and honorary medical adviser to the Government of Pakistan.
Major-General Albert Sachs was another South African-born member of the R.A.M.C. to attain senior rank. Born in Pretoria in 1904, and educated at Pretoria Boys High School, Sachs entered the R.A.M.C. in 1927. During World War Two, he served as Acting Deputy Physician to the British 10th Army in North-Africa, Italy and Iraq. After the war, Sachs served in India and was promoted Brigadier in 1949, and Major-General in 1953. Appointed Deputy Director of Medical Services, Eastern Command, Sachs retired from the British Army in 1956. During his years in the R.A.M.C. Sachs had conducted studies in meningococcal meningitis, and sandfly fever, and also investigated the prevention of tetanus in the wounded, and researched the antigenic structure of non-Mannite-fermenting dysentry organisms. Sachs was awarded the C.B.E. (1952), and C.B. (1955), serving as honorary Physician to his Majesty the King in 1951, and to Queen Elizabeth II, on her succession a year later. Sachs also served as Colonel Commandant of the Royal Army Medical Corps (1964-1969).
Again, another South African-born soldier who attained senior rank in the Royal Army Medical Corps was Major-general Philip Francis Palmer, born at Kroonstad, in the Orange Free State. Promoted Lieutenant in 1926, Palmer served on the North West Frontier, and during the second world war, commanded No 71 General hospital and serving as A.D.M.S., Headquarters, 4 Division from 1943-1945. After the cessation of hostilities, Palmer was to see service in Germany (B.A.O.R.)(46), Malaya, and the Middle East. Promoted Brigadier in 1955 and Major-General a year later, Palmer retired from the R.A.M.C. in 1960, being appointed Colonel-Commandant of the R.A.M.C. in 1963(47).
Recently, Rhodesian-born General Sir Michael Dawson Walker (1944- ), British Army, served as commander of NATO Ground Forces in Bosnia (1995-1996), and as Chief of the Defence Staff (2003-2006). Born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, he was educated at the Prince Edward School, in Salisbury, Rhodesia and at the R.M.C Sandhurst, being commissioned in the Royal Anglian Regiment in 1966. Walker was appointed General Officer Commanding North Eastern District and Commander of the 2nd British Infantry Division (1991-1992). He has also served as Colonel Commandant of the Queen's Division (1991-2000) and continues to serve as Aide-De-Camp to the Queen, a post he has held since 1997.
In addition Brigadiers Owen Collins, Royal Engineers and Garth Miles Hunt-Davis, Royal Gurkha Regiment, were two other Southern African-born officers who distinguished themselves in the British Army during the post-War period.
Brigadier Owen Collins, Johannesburg-born and partly educated at Parktown Preparatory, Johannesburg, was commissioned in the Royal Engineers in 1925, and served during the second world war. He was promoted brigadier in 1956, retiring the same year, and returned to Southern Africa, settling in Rhodesia. * * *
Brigadier Garth Miles Hunt-Davis(48), also born in Johannesburg, and educated at St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown, was commissioned in the 6th Queen Elizabeth's own Gurkha Rifles in 1962. He was appointed commander of the Brigade of Gurkhas in 1987. Upon his retirement from the British Army, Hunt-Davis served as Colonel of the 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles (1991-1994), and has also acted in the capacity of Private Secretary to H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh (1991-2007), accompanying the latter on his trip to South Africa in 2000, and surprising the locals by speaking to them in Afrikaans!(49)
Air-Marshals H.R. Graham, Sir P.D. Holder, Sir P.C. Fletcher, Sir P. Lagesen, Sir H.P. Fraser, B.P. Young, and Air Commodore Ellacombe
South African-born Air Vice-Marshal Henry Rudolph Graham(50), attended the South African training ship General Botha, before serving with Union Castle Line from 1926-1931. He joined the R.A.F. in 1931, and served as a bomber-pilot during the second world war, being awarded the D.S.O. and D.F.C., the latter for his part in the attacks on the German pocket battleships, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, in December 1941. After the war, Graham remained in the R.A.F. and became Senior Air Staff officer of No. 1 (Bomber) Group in 1952. He later returned to South Africa where he died on his farm in 1987(51).
Air-Marshal the Reverend Sir Henry Paterson Fraser (later H.P. Fraser), born in Johannesburg, and educated at St. Andrew's College, Grahamstown, and Pembroke College, Cambridge, was given a permanent commission in the R.A.F. in 1929. He first served on the troubled Northwest Frontier, where Fraser produced the R.A.F.'s first Manual of Supply Dropping. During the early days of the War, Fraser served at the Directorate of War Organisation at the Air Ministry. Fraser then again served at R.A.E. Farnborough, and it was during this period that this South African effectively introduced Statistical Control - a system by which an establishment can accurately measure its capacity in meeting the required work load. Fraser was involved in the planning and operational organisation of the 2nd Tactical Air-Force (T.A.F.). He was awarded the C.B.E. in 1945. Promoted Air-Vice-Marshal in 1953, Fraser served as Air-officer-Commanding No. 12 Group, Fighter Command, (1956-1958), and was promoted Air-Marshal in 1959. His subsequent appointments included that of Director of R.A.F. Exercise Planning (1959) and Inspector-General of the Royal Air Force (1962-1964). Air Marshal Henry Paterson Fraser, R.A.F., K.B.E., C.B., A.F.C., retired from the R.A.F. in 1964, having been knighted in the process. Fraser later became interested in theological matters, and was ordained as a minister in 1977, and passed away in August 2001.
Air Marshal Sir Paul Davie Holder(52), was born in Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape in 1911, and left with his family for England at the age of two. He joined the R.A.F. as a University entrant in 1935 and following his training at No 3 FTS, Grantham, was posted to No 57 Squadron. During World War II Holder served in Iraq, being awarded the D.F.C. for his courage at Habbaniya, whereupon he commanded No 218 Squadron, based at RAF Marham. Holder subsequently completed 65 operations, flying Stirlings, and was awarded the DSO. Following the war, Holder held various commands in Egypt, Singapore and Hong Kong. Having been promoted Air Commodore in 1957, and Air Vice-Marshal in 1961, he served as AOC, No 25 (Training) Group. Promoted Air Marshal in 1965, and made a KBE the same year, Holder served as AOC in Chief, Coastal Command. Upon his retirement from the RAF, he was appointed Honorary Air Commodore of No 3 (County of Devon) Maritime Headquarters Unit, Royal Auxiliary Air Force. Air Marshal holder passed away in 2001.
Air Chief Marshal Sir Peter Carteret Fletcher(53) was born in Durban, Natal, in 1916 and brought up in Southern Rhodesia. He initially served with the Southern Rhodesian Air Force before transferring to the R.A.F.. During World War II, Fletcher commanded Nos 135 and 258 Squadrons, R.A.F., as well as R.A.F. Station, Belvedere, being awarded the D.F.C. in 1943. During the post-war years Fletcher was appointed A.O.C., No 38 Group, Transport command (1966-1967) and also served as Vice Chief of the Air Staff.
Air Marshal Sir Philip Lagesen, Johannesburg-born and educated at Jeppe High School, initially served in the S.A.A.F. during World War II, and then joined the Royal Air Force in 1951. He later served in Rhodesia, and Kenya (during operations against The Mau Mau). Lagesen set a new world record for speed and distance by piloting a Canberra Bomber on a non-stop flight from Tokyo to London in 1957, for which he was awarded the Air-Force Cross (AFC). Lagesen was later appointed Air officer Commanding No. 1 Group, R.A.F., and thereafter took over command of No. 18 Group, Maritime Command (1978-1980), being knighted in 1979(54).
Born in Zululand, Natal, Air Vice-Marshal Brian Pashley Young was educated at Michaelhouse, Natal, and won a cadet scholarship to Cranwell. Commissioned in the R.A.F. in 1938, he served in France, over the atlantic, and in the Middle East during World War II. Young commanded the Central Reconnaissance Establishment (1964-1967), and was also appointed Commandant-General of the R.A.F. Regiment (1968-1973), retiring from the R.A.F. in 1973.
Northern Rhodesian-born Air-Commodore Lawrence Wemyss Ellacombe, joined the R.A.F. in 1939, and served with Fighter Command during World War II, taking part in the Battle of Britain. Born in Livingstone, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia), Ellacombe was educated at Diocesan College, Cape Town. His wartime exploits earned Ellacombe the D.F.C. (1942) and Bar (1944). After the war Ellacombe commanded R.A.F. Linton-on-Ouse (1960-1962), before commanding the Air Forces in the Gulf Region (1968-1970), his last appointment being that of Director of Operations, Air Defence and Overseas, at the Ministry of Defence, (1970-1973).
The Senior Service - The Royal Navy:
Admirals Searle, Trewby, Boyce and Middleton
Those South African-born individuals who had made their careers in the Royal Navy were not to be outdone during the post-war period. Rear-Admiral Malcolm Walter St. Leger Searle, born in Cape Town, and educated at the Western Province Preparatory School, received the Dominion nomination for the Navy proposed by General Smuts and Vice-Admiral King-Hall. He subsequently entered the Royal Navy as a cadet in 1913, and attended the Royal Naval College's Osborne and Dartmouth.
Searle then served as a midshipman with the Grand Fleet, on board H.M.S. Thunderer, and later in the Baltic. After the first World War Searle steadily rose in rank, beginning the second World War as a Commander. During the war Searle served in home waters, and in Mediterranean and Arctic waters as Captain of H.M.S. Sheffield (1941-1943). After the war Searle served as Director of Plans (Q), (1948-1951), and as Commodore, Royal Naval Barracks, Portsmouth (1951). Promoted to flag rank in 1952, Searle served as Deputy Chief of Naval Personnel (1953-1955), before retiring from the Royal Navy in 1956, having been awarded the C.B. and C.B.E., and was also Mentioned-in-Despatches thrice.
Vice-Admiral Sir George F.A. Trewby, who served as the Chief of Fleet Support and a member of the Board of Admiralty between 1971 and 1974, was born (fittingly enough) at Simonstown, South Africa, in 1917. Simonstown served, of course, as an important base for the Royal Navy, before being transferred to the South African Navy in the mid-1950s.
Rear-Admiral Linley Eric Middleton, born in East London in 1928, and educated at Dale College, Kingwilliamstown, commanded H.M.S. Hermes(55) during the Falklands Campaign (1982)(56), having been appointed commander of the British Air-Craft Carrier in 1980. Middleton had enrolled as a pupil pilot in the S.A.A.F., before choosing a career in the Royal Navy. After entering the R.N., he qualified in 1952 as a pilot in the Fleet Air Arm, and served in the Suez Canal Crisis (1956). He later commanded No. 809 Naval Air Squadron, F.A.A., on board H.M.S. Hermes (1966-1967). Following the Falkland's campaign, Middleton then served as Assistant Chief of Naval Staff, Operations, (1983-1984), before being promoted Rear-Admiral in 1984, and appointed Flag officer, Naval Air Command. Rear-Admiral Linley Middleton retired from the Royal Navy in 1987. The author very much doubts whether more than a few people from East London have even heard of this affable man, hailing from the Eastern Cape!
Last, but certainly not least, Admiral Sir Michael Cecil Boyce, Royal Navy, First Sea Lord (1998-2001) and Chief of the Defence Staff (2001-2003), was born at Cape Town, South Africa, and educated at Hurstpier College and the Royal Naval College, Dartmouth. He joined the Royal Navy in 1961 and during his career commanded H.M. Submarines Oberon, Opossum and Superb. He has also served as Aide-de-Camp to Queen Elizabeth II. He was created Baron Boyce in 2003.
South Africa, and Northern and Southern Rhodesia(57), can indeed take pride in these their sons, who have served the Crown and the British People valiantly and loyally, and have truly distinguished themselves and their Countries of Birth!
Southern African-born General-officers and Brigadiers of the British Army
- Field-Marshal Jan Christian Smuts, (British Army: Honorary)
- General Sir Abraham Josias Cloete, (British Army 21st Dragoons)
- General Sir E.C.R. Mansergh, (British Army: Royal Artillery)
- General Sir C.W.H. Douglas (British Army: Gordon Highlanders)
- Genral Michael Douglas Walker (Rhodesian-born: British Army: Royal Anglian Regiment)
- Lieutenant-General Sir W.A. Drummond (British Army: R.A.M.C.)
- Major-General C.C. Teesdale, V.C. (British Army: Royal Artillery)
- Major-General Sir George Grey Aston (Royal Marines)
- Major-General Sir E. Hakewill-Smith (British Army: Royal Scots Fusiliers)
- Major-General Arnold H.E. Reading (Royal Marines)
- Major-General Albert Sachs (British Army: R.A.M.C.)
- Major-General Philip Francis Palmer (British Army: R.A.M.C)
- Brigadier F.R.S. Gervers (British Army: Royal Engineers)
- Brigadier D.W. Clarke (British Army: Founder of the British Commandos)
- Brigadier W.D.C. Greenacre (British Army: Welsh Guards)
- Brigadier E. Arderne (British Army: Durham Light infantry)
- Brigadier Owen Collins (British Army: R.E.)
- Brigadier G.M. Hunt-Davis (British Army: Gurkha Regiment)
Southern African-born Flag officers of the Royal Navy
- Admiral J.F.P.L. Maclear
- Admiral J.B. Eustace
- Admiral Sir E. Neville Syfret
- Admiral M.C. Boyce
- Vice Admiral Vincent Barkly Molteno
- Vice Admiral A.E. Evans
- Vice Admiral Sir G.F.A. Trewby
- Rear-Admiral C.M. Graham
- Rear-Admiral Walter St. Leger Searle
- Rear-Admiral Linley E. Middleton (F.A.A.)
Southern African-born officers of Air-Rank in the R.A.F.
- Air Chief-Marshal Sir H.L. Saunders
- Air Chief-Marshal Sir P.C. Fletcher
- Air Marshal Sir Leonard Slatter
- Air Marshal Sir H.P. Fraser
- Air Marshal Sir J.D. Holder
- Air Marshal Sir P.J. Lagesen
- Air Vice-Marshal Sir C.J.Q. Brand
- Air Vice-Marshal Sir L.O. Brown
- Air Vice-Marshal H.R. Graham
- Air Vice-Marshal B.P. Young
- Air-Commodore L.W. Ellacombe (Northern Rhodesian-born)
Southern African-born Colonel-Commandants of Regiments of the British Defence Force
- Maj.-Gen. G.G. Aston: Royal Marine Artillery (1914)
- Gen. A.J. Cloete: 19th Regt. of Foot, Princess of Wales' Own Yorkshire Regiment (1861-1886)
- Lieutenant-Gen. A. Drummond: R.A.M.C. (1961-1966)
- Brig. Hunt-Davis: 7th Duke of Edinburgh's Own Gurkha Rifles (1991-1994)
- Gen. Mansergh: Royal Artillery (1950-1970)
- Gen. Mansergh: Royal Horse Artillery (1957-1970)
- Maj.-Gen. P.F. Palmer: R.A.M.C. (1963)
- Maj.-Gen. A. Sachs: R.A.M.C. (1964-1969)
- Gen. M.D. Walker: Queen's Division, (1991-2000)
Various Commands held by Southern African-born senior-officers of the British Defence Force
- C.O. Windward and Leeward Islands: 1856-1861 (Cloete)
- Chief of the Imperial General Staff: W.W.I. (Douglas)
- C.O. British Expeditionary Force to Dunkirk and Ostend: W.W.I. 1914 (Aston)
- C.O. Royal Marine Artillery Division: 1914-17 (Aston)
- Helped Found the Royal Air-Force: 1 April 1918 (Smuts)
- A.O.C. No. 10 Group, R.A.F.: Battle of Britain, 1940 (Brand)
- C.O. 5th indian Infantry Division: W.W.II. Burma (Mansergh)
- Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces in The Netherlands East indies : 1946 (Mansergh)
- C.O. 52 (Lowland) Division: N. W. Europe, 1944-1945 (Hakewill-Smith)
- A.O.C. 15 (Coastal Command) group, R.A.F.: 1943-1945 (Slatter)
- C.O. 6th Guards armoured Brigade: N.W. Europe 1944-1945 (Greenacre)
- A.O.C. No. 84 Group, T.A.F.: 1944-1945 (Brown)
- Commander-in-Chief, Coastal Command: 1945 (Slatter)
- Air Marshal commanding R.A.F., Burma: 1945 (Saunders)
- Commander-in-Chief , Home Fleet, Royal Navy: 1945-1946 (Syfret)
- Inspector-General of the R.A.F.: 1949-1950 (Saunders)
- Commander-in-Chief, Air Forces, Western Europe: (Saunders)
- S.A.S.O. No 1 Bomber Group, R.A.F.: 1952 (Graham)
- Commander-in-Chief, N.A.T.O. Forces: 1953-1955 (Mansergh)
- Deputy Chief of Personnel : 1953-1956 (Searle)
- A.O.C., AHQ Singapore: 1957 (Holder)
- A.O.C., AHQ Hong Kong: 1957 (Holder)
- Director of R.A.F. Exercise Planning: 1959 (Fraser)
- Assistant Chief of the Air Staff (Training): 1960 (Holder)
- Inspector-General of the Royal Air Force: 1962-1964 (Fraser)
- A.O.C., No 25 (Training) Group: 1963 (Holder)
- A.O.C. Central Reconnaissance Establishment : 1964-1967 (Young)
- A.O.C. Coastal Command & Commander Maritime Air, Eastern Atlantic Area and Channel Command: 1965 (Holder)
- A.O.C., No 38 Group, Transport Command: 1966-1967 (P.C. Fletcher)
- Vice Chief of the Air Staff: (P.C. Fletcher)
- Commandant-General of the R.A.F. Regiment: 1968-1973 (Young)
- A.O.C. No. 1 Group, R.A.F.: (Lagesen)
- A.O.C. No. 18 Group, Maritime Command: 1978 - 1980 (Lagesen)
- Capt. H.M.S. Hermes: Falklands War 1982 (Middleton)
- C.O. Gurkha Brigade: 1987 (Hunt-Davis)
- Flag officer, Naval Air Command: 1984-1987 (Middleton)
- C.O. 2nd British Infantry Division: 1991-1992 (Walker) Rhodesian-born
- C.O. NATO Ground Forces, Bosnia: 1995-1996 (Walker) Rhodesian-born
- First Sea Lord: 1998-2001 (Boyce)
- Chief of Defence Staff: 2001-2003 (Boyce)
- Chief of Defence Staff: 2003-2005 (Walker) Rhodesian-born
In addition, officers who have attained the Rank of General-officer or Brigadier in any one of the three arms of the British Defence Force, and who may have been, or were probably born in South Africa, or in Northern or Southern Rhodesia include(58):
- Major-General G.D.D. Wolfe (British Army: Royal Irish Fusiliers)(59)
- Major-General Harry Rivers (British Army: R.E.)(60)
- Major-General J.O. Armstrong (British Army)(61)
- Major-General Sir Leslie Norman Tyler (British Army: R.E.M.E.)(62)
- Major-General F.H. Brooke (British Army: Welch Regiment)(63)
- Major-General Cedric Rhys-Price (British Army: R.E.)(64)
- Major-General T.N.S. Wheeler (British Army: Royal Irish Fusiliers)(65)
- Major-General J.M. Macfie (British Army: R.A.M.C.)(66)
- Brigadier Ernest Bader (British Army: Royal Engineers)
- Brigadier F.A.H. Mathew (British Army: Royal Signals Regiment)
- Brigadier G.W.P.N. Burden (British Army: East Lancashire Regiment)
- Brigadier C.E.M. Herbert (British Army: Royal Engineers)
- Brigadier L.G.O. Jenkins (British Army: Royal Artillery)
- Brigadier H.L. Marriott (British Army: R.A.M.C.)
- Brigadier H.L.G. Hughes (British Army: R.A.M.C.)
- Brigadier Ralph Alexander Broderick (British Army: R.A.M.C.)(67)
- Brigadier T.De F. Jago (British Army: Royal Artillery)
- Brigadier O.G. Brooke (British Army: Welch Regiment)
- Brigadier William Murray Inglis (British Army: R.E.)(68)
- Brigadier C.J. Pike (British Army:10th Gurkha Regiment)(69)
- Rear-Admiral John Richard Luke Stoll(70)
- Rear-Admiral Cecil Ward (Paymaster)(71)
- Rear-Admiral Harry Philip Currey(72)
- Rear-Admiral Charles B. Williams (Engineer) (73)
- Rear-Admiral Ronald Victor Holley (Possibly Rhodesian-born)(74)
- Air Chief-Marshal Sir H.N.G. Wheeler(75)
- Air Marshal Sir. C.W. Weedon(76)
- Air Vice-Marshal Sir E.A.B. Rice(77)
- Air Vice-Marshal A.P. Ritchie(78)
- Air Vice-Marshal C.E.H. Allen(79)
- Air Vice-Marshal F.W. Felgate
- Air Vice-Marshal T.A.B. Parselle (Possibly Southern Rhodesian by birth)(80)
- Air Vice-Marshal D.C. Stapleton(81)
- Air Vice-Marshal W.E. Colahan(82)
- Air Vice-Marshal J.F.G. Howe(83)
- Air Vice-Marshal M.C.S. Shepherd
- Air-Commodore J.F. Roulston
- Air-Commodore E.J. Morris
- Air-Commodore C.W. Busk(84)
While those not born in Southern Africa but who were brought up or educated in Southern Africa include:
1 Ingrid Winther Scobie, Center Stage: Helen Douglas, A Life (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995): xv.
2 Shirley Washington, Outstanding Women Members of Congress (Washington, DC: U.S. Capitol Historical Society, 1995): 24.
3 Cabel Phillips, “Presenting Mrs. Douglas and Mrs. Douglas: As Freshmen in Congress They Have Already Broken Down Some Time-Honored Traditions,” 18 February 1945, New York Times: SM11.
4 Scobie, Center Stage: 151.
5 Hope Chamberlin, A Minority of Members: Women in the U.S. Congress (New York: Praeger, 1973): 183.
6 Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives, “Election Statistics, 1920 to Present.”
7 Scobie, Center Stage: xvi. For example, see Richard Fenno, Home Style: House Members in Their Districts (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978). Fenno writes, “Dramatic analogies are appropriate to politics because politicians, like actors, perform before audiences and are legitimized by their audiences” see his “U.S. House Members and Their Constituencies: An Exploration,” American Political Science Review 71, no. 2 (September 1977): 898. See also Ralph Huitt and Robert L. Peabody, Congress: Two Decades of Analysis (New York: Harper and Row, Publishers, 1969): 170.
8 Phillips, “Presenting Mrs. Douglas and Mrs. Douglas.”
9 For the latter, see Congressional Record, House 79th Cong., 1st sess. (16 October 1945): 9692–9694.
10 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (4 October 1945): 9460–9461. See also, Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (15 November 1945): 10740 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (23 November 1945): 10940–10945 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (18 July 1946): 9350–9379 and Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (25 July 1946): 10108–10111.
11 Though Cold War prerogatives led the Atomic Energy Commission to focus on weapons development, frustrating its creators, it did set the precedent for U.S. civilian control that later became embodied in its successors—the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
12 Congressional Record, House, 80th Cong., 2nd sess. (28 April 1948): 5011–5024, quotation on 5011.
13 Labor Management Relations (Taft–Hartley) Act of 1947, PL 80-101, 61 Stat. 136 (1947) Alexander R. George, “Federal Efficiency First—Then Housing: Hoover Reorganization Plan Ranks No. 1 on Lady Legislators’ Lists,” 3 July 1949, Washington Post: S4.
14 George, “Federal Efficiency First—Then Housing.” See also Douglas’s statement in the Congressional Record, House, 80th Cong., 2nd sess. (5 August 1948): 9904–9913.
15 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (12 June 1945): 5977 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (2 August 1946): 10771–10772.
16 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (1 February 1946): A428–443.
17 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (24 October 1945): 10036.
18 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 2nd sess. (29 March 1946): 2856–2859, quotation on 2857.
19 Scobie, Center Stage: 248–252 Stephen Ambrose, Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913–1962 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1987): 209–210.
20 Scobie, Center Stage: 265 Ambrose, Nixon: 215–218 Greg Mitchell, Tricky Dick and the Pink Lady: Richard Nixon vs. Helen Gahagan Douglas—Sexual Politics and the Red Scare, 1950 (New York: Random House, 1998): 183–185.
Ph.D., University of Texas at Austin, 2009
M.A., University of Texas at Austin, 2003
B.A., Georgetown University, 1999
Boin's intellectual interests are driven by a strong desire to interrogate the social history of Republican, Imperial and Late Roman religions. He is also keenly intent on exploring broader issues related to the transformation of Roman society, which is another way of saying, he works at the intersection of politics and religion in ancient history.
Boin's research largely draws upon archaeological, anthropological, and sociological approaches to religion, as well as recent research on social memory, landscape, and the construction of identity. In all of his work, Boin has charted the transformations and economic changes that characterized Rome, Italy and the Western provinces during the imperial and late Roman periods. He also incorporates epigraphic material, as well as smaller objects like lamps, glassware, and ivory, to reconstruct a more intimate image of Roman daily life-exploring the social, cultural and visual continuities that bind the Roman "Age of Augustus" to the late Roman "World of Augustine"-and beyond.
Current avenues of interest include the city, people, and history of Rome in Late Antiquity to issues related to the transformation of Roman imperial cult. He has also recently completed a four-year project on the history of citizenship, immigration, and the reception of foreigners in the later Roman Empire and maintains an interest in biography, narrative history and publications.
Why The Anti-Terrorism Bill is Really an Anti-Privacy Bill: Bill C-51’s Evisceration of Privacy Protection
“The first and main concern is the privacy issue…since the information is to be shared by different levels of government and different governmental bodies. There is a risk that privacy can be compromised. The more information is transferred and shared, the greater the risk of security of the information.“
Nearly twenty years ago, that was Stephen Harper, then a Reform Party MP warning against the privacy implications of an electronic voter registry and the fear that information sharing within government raised significant privacy concerns. Today, there is a very different Stephen Harper, who as Prime Minister is fast-tracking a bill that eviscerates privacy protections within the public sector and is even blocking the Privacy Commissioner of Canada from appearing as a witness at the committee studying the bill. Much of the focus on Bill C-51 has related to oversight: the government implausibly claims that it increases oversight (it does not), the Liberals say they support the bill but would like better oversight, and much of the NDP criticism has also centered on oversight. Yet with respect to privacy and Bill C-51, lack of oversight is only a part of the problem.
Last month, I wrote about the disastrous privacy consequences of the bill. The focal point was Bill C-51′s Security of Canada Information Sharing Act (SCISA), a bill within the bill, that goes far further than sharing information related to terrorist activity. It does so in three simple steps. First, the bill permits information sharing across government for an incredibly wide range of purposes, most of which have nothing to do with terrorism. The government has tried to justify the provisions on the grounds that Canadians would support sharing information for national security purposes, but the bill allows sharing for reasons that would surprise and disturb most Canadians. Second, the scope of sharing is remarkably broad, covering 17 government institutions with the prospect of cabinet expansion to other departments as well as further disclosure “to any person, for any purpose.” Third, oversight is indeed a problem as the Privacy Act is already outdated and effectively neutered by the bill.
Professors Craig Forcese and Kent Roach offer a detailed examination of the privacy implications of the massive expansion of government sharing of information. In recent weeks, all privacy commissioners from across the country have spoken out. For example, Privacy Commissioner of Canada Daniel Therrien, appointed by the government less than a year ago and described as an expert by Prime Minister Harper, rightly slams the bill:
the scale of information sharing being proposed is unprecedented, the scope of the new powers conferred by the Act is excessive, particularly as these powers affect ordinary Canadians, and the safeguards protecting against unreasonable loss of privacy are seriously deficient. While the potential to know virtually everything about everyone may well identify some new threats, the loss of privacy is clearly excessive. All Canadians would be caught in this web.
As a result of SCISA, 17 government institutions involved in national security would have virtually limitless powers to monitor and, with the assistance of Big Data analytics, to profile ordinary Canadians, with a view to identifying security threats among them. In a country governed by the rule of law, it should not be left for national security agencies to determine the limits of their powers. Generally, the law should prescribe clear and reasonable standards for the sharing, collection, use and retention of personal information, and compliance with these standards should be subject to independent and effective review mechanisms, including the courts.
The Privacy Commissioner – who the government is now blocking from appearing before the committee studying the bill – offers many recommended reforms that would address overbroad sharing and build in much-needed oversight and safeguards.
All provincial privacy commissioners have offered a similar analysis, jointly calling on the government to withdraw the information sharing aspects of the bill. They also warn of routine surveillance of large portions of the population:
It could be used to authorize, in effect, surveillance across governments in Canada, and abroad, for virtually unlimited purposes. Such a state of affairs would be inconsistent with the rule of law in our democratic state and contrary to the expectations of Canadians.
David Flaherty’s examination of the history of the Privacy Act in Canada emphasized the weakness of the law well before Bill C-51. He noted that it is already regarded as “highly inadequate for the needs of the 21st century.” Yet rather than address decades-old issues with the Privacy Act, the government is proposing to eviscerate it by opening the door to widespread sharing of information across government departments and beyond with few limits or safeguards. Indeed, Bill C-51’s information sharing provisions likely represent the most significant reduction in public sector privacy protection in Canadian history.
The first people settled at the place where Charlotte is in 1755 when a man named Thomas Polk built a house near two Native American trading paths. More people started living in the area and in 1768 it became a town named Charlotte Town.  It was named after the wife of King George III because the people wanted him to like them.  But he did not, and soon he started passing laws that the people in Charlotte did not like. So, on May 20, 1775, the people in Charlotte signed a proclamation that later was called the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence.  They did not want to be ruled by the king anymore so eleven days later they had a meeting and made new laws for their town. 
In the early 1800s, many churches started to form in Charlotte. That is why Charlotte is sometimes called “The City of Churches.” 
In 1799, a boy found a big rock. When a jeweler told his family that it was gold, the first gold rush in the United States started.  A lot of gold was found. More gold was found in North Carolina then any other state until the California Gold Rush of 1848.  Some people in Charlotte still enjoy looking for gold.
After the Civil War Charlotte became a busy town. Cotton farmers brought their cotton to Charlotte to ship it on trains. Even more people started living in Charlotte during World War I. When the war ended a lot of people stayed in the city.
Today the city is known for its many banks. Charlotte is the second biggest banking city in the United States. Only New York City has more banks. 
Charlotte has many different kinds of weather throughout the year. In the winter the temperature sometimes goes below 32 °F (0 °C) and in the summer it has gone up to 104 °F (40 °C). The city usually gets about 43.52 inches (1105.3 mm) of precipitation a year. Most of it is rain. It does not snow much in Charlotte.
This table shows the average temperature and rainfall each month:
|Avg high °F(°C)||54 (12)||56 (13)||64 (18)||73 (23)||80 (27)||87 (31)||90 (32)||88 (31)||82 (28)||73 (23)||63 (17)||54 (12)||72 (22)|
|Avg low temperature °F(°C)||32 (0)||34 (1)||42 (6)||49 (9)||58 (14)||66 (19)||71 (22)||69 (21)||63 (17)||51 (11)||42 (6)||35 (2)||51 (11)|
|Rainfall inches (millimeters)||4.00 (101.6)||3.55 (90.2)||4.39 (111.5)||2.95 (74.9)||2.66 (93.0)||3.42 (86.9)||3.79 (96.3)||3.72 (94.5)||3.83 (97.3)||3.66 (93.0)||3.36 (85.3)||3.18 (80.8)||43.52 (1105.3)|
Banking is very important in Charlotte. Many banks, such as Bank of America and Wachovia have headquarters in the city. There are also many other big companies in Charlotte. There are many skyscrapers (tall buildings) in Charlotte.
NASCAR also has many offices in Charlotte and in the towns around Charlotte.
Charlotte has a council-manager kind of government. This means that there two main leaders in Charlotte: the city council who makes the laws, and the city manager who makes sure everybody follows the laws.
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department is in charge of keeping everyone in the city safe. The are about 1600 police officers in the Police Department.
The city’s public school system, called Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools, is the second biggest school system in North Carolina. The school system has about 132,000 students. 
There is a university, called the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, in Charlotte. Right now there are about 22,000 students who go to this university. There is also a community college, called Central Piedmont Community College, in the city. It is the biggest community college in both North or South Carolina.  Charlotte has many private universities as well.
There are many professional sports teams in Charlotte. Some of them are:
Charlotte also has several parks and other public places for people to enjoy.
Mass Transportation Edit
There are many public busses to help people get around the city. In 2007 Charlotte began a mass transit light rail system. Charlotte also has a system of small trains called LYNX.
Charlotte's International Airport name Charlotte/Douglas, which is the 11th busiest airport in the world.
Because Charlotte is in the middle of the east coast of the U.S., a lot of people drive through the city every day. Charlotte has many big interstates to handle all the traffic. But many people think Charlotte does not have good roads. They are big, but they were not planned well.
Amtrak runs three different trains every day in Charlotte. People can ride these trains to the following cities:
The Douglas DC-6 was one of the first airplanes to fly a regularly scheduled around-the-world route. With its higher performance, increased accommodation, greater payload and pressurized cabin, it was a natural evolution of the DC-4.
Although the DC-6 had the same wingspan as the DC-4, its engines helped it fly 90 mph (145 kph) faster than the DC-4, carry 3,000 pounds (1350 kilograms) more payload and fly 850 miles (1368 kilometers) farther. The DC-6 could maintain the cabin pressure of 5,000 feet (1524 kilometers) while flying at 20,000 feet (6096 meters).
American Airlines and United Airlines ordered the commercial DC-6 in 1946, and Pan American Airways used the DC-6 to start tourist-class service across the North Atlantic. The 29th DC-6 was ordered by the U.S. Air Force, adapted as the presidential aircraft and designated the VC-118. It was delivered on July 1, 1947, and named The Independence after President Harry Truman&rsquos hometown, Independence, Mo.
The larger, all-cargo DC-6A first flew Sept. 29, 1949 the larger capacity DC-6B, which could seat up 102 people, first flew Feb. 10, 1951. After the Korean War broke out in 1951, the military ordered DC-6As modified as either C-118A Liftmaster personnel carriers, as the Navy&rsquos R6D transports or as MC-118As for aeromedical evacuation. Between 1947 and 1959, Douglas built a total of 704 DC-6s, 167 of them military versions.
By the end of the twentieth century, DC-6 airplanes were still flying around the world.
Douglas C-51 - History
On October 12, 1970, Pierre LaPorte's wife received a letter from her husband: (1)
The day before Quebec premier Robert Bourassa had also received a letter from his labour minister: (1)
How could Mr. Bourassa not be moved by such a letter? How could anyone not in that situation? "You have the power of life and death over me. "
LaPorte's kidnapping, had followed the kidnapping of British Diplomat James Cross, the week before.
Cross would survive. Mr. LaPorte was not so lucky.
To understand the severity of the crisis, you had to have lived during that time. Anglophone communities in Montreal were targeted, especially in the affluent neighborhood of Westmount.
Between 1963 and 1970, the FLQ had detonated over 95 bombs, including one at the Montreal Stock Exchange, Montreal City Hall and the RCMP recruitment office. Dozens more were in mailboxes. This was not like the false flag war that the Harper government has used as an excuse for Bill C-51.
This was no exaggerated far off threat. The threats were real and the terrorist activities were taking place in our own country.
The kidnappings were an attempt to have 23 prisoners, charged with previous bombings, released in exchange for the hostages.
The Quebec National Assembly voted unanimously to implement the War Measures Act, and Pierre Trudeau complied. We were indeed at war. There was some hyperbole, mostly written of in modern times, but there was definitely a clear and present danger in October of 1970.
We know that Tommy Douglas opposed the implementation of the WMA, and said so in his October 16, 1970, address to Parliament. Four NDP MPs broke ranks, but the rest supported their leader. He would later explain to CBC, why he raised the alarm:
I see amending the Criminal Code, "giving the powers to search without warrant and whatever other powers it needs to cope with the situation in the City of Montreal" being a slippery slope, since it is quite vague, without an exit. How long would the allowance to search without warrant be on the books?
There has been a suggestion that Douglas's opposition to the WMA was political, but I don't believe so. Tommy Douglas was a man of conviction. Thomas Mulcair is not, nor would he have opposed the implementation of the Act.
In 1982, the Government of Canada funded a new group called Alliance Quebec, to protect Quebec Anglophone economic interests and combat the threat of separatism. Mulcair would become their director of legal affairs. He had also been part of the anti-separatist movement, protesting the 1980 referendum.
Recently, a former president of the AQ had this to say:
If Mulcair had opposed the WMA at the time, he would never have been allowed membership into Alliance Quebec. Yet I'm constantly being reminded of the NDP stand, in discussions over Bill C-51.
Like only they have ever stood up for our rights.
As we know Tommy Douglas's opposition was not popular at the time. 85% of Canadians supported the idea, including a large number of NDP members.
Author Elaine Kalman-Knaves wrote of her personal experiences living in Montreal during this time. She recounts the site of tanks during a different period in her life, when she was a child in Budapest. They were Soviet tanks, invoking fear. However, in 1970, while riding a bus home, she remembers seeing the soldiers with guns.
1. Documents on the October Crisis, Quebec History, Marionapolis College
2. Comments by T. C. Douglas, Leader of the New Democratic Party, On the War Measures Act, CBC, October 16, 1970
Executive Biography of Donald W. Douglas Jr.
Donald W. Douglas Jr.
Douglas Aircraft Co., 1939-1967 President, 1957-1967
Member, Board of Directors, 1953-1967
McDonnell Douglas Corp., 1967-1989
Senior Corporate Vice President, 1967-1974
Member, Board of Directors, 1967-1989
Donald W. Douglas Jr., son of aviation pioneer and Douglas Aircraft founder Donald Wills Douglas, was born on July 3, 1917, in Washington, D.C. He studied mechanical engineering at Stanford University and aeronautical engineering at the Curtiss-Wright Technical Institute in Glendale, California.
He started with the company in 1939 as an engineer in the strength group. His father wanted to make sure the younger Douglas got a solid foundation in the company, so Douglas Jr. spent his first several years in many different jobs in various departments.
In 1943, he was appointed manager of flight test, his first supervisory job. There, he supervised the flight testing of practically every type of aircraft built by Douglas during World War II, including the SDB Dauntless and C-54 Skymaster. Later, he was named director of the testing division. The post-war DC-6 and DC-7 airliners obtained type certification under his direction.
He was named vice president of the company in 1951 and elected to the board of directors in 1953. He was named president of Douglas Aircraft in 1957, a position he held at the time of the merger of McDonnell and Douglas in 1967. During this time he was responsible for the introduction of the DC-8 and DC-9 jetliners.
He served as a McDonnell Douglas senior vice president from 1967 until his retirement in 1974. In that position, he headed the Douglas Development Co., a wholly owned subsidiary formed to develop excess McDonnell Douglas real estate. In 1972 he was instrumental in the formation of a partnership with commercial developers to build Douglas Plaza, a 50-acre complex of retail and office buildings near Orange County Airport in Southern California.
After his retirement, he remained on the board of directors of McDonnell Douglas until 1989. He founded the Capistrano Bank in 1975, Biphase Energy Systems in 1976 and Douglas Energy Co. of Placentia, California.
He served as chairman of the board of governors of the Aerospace Industries Association, national vice president of the National Defense Transportation Association and as a member of the advisory board of the Association of the U.S. Army. Additionally, he was president of the Crescent Bay Council of the Boy Scouts of America, director of the Los Angeles World Affairs Council, and a member of the President's Committee on Youth Fitness.
For his contributions to aviation, he received the French Legion of Honor and the Order of Merit of the Republic of Italy.