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21 September 1943

21 September 1943


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21 September 1943

September 1943

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Eastern Front

Soviet troops capture Chernigov



Infantry Division "Acqui" - September 1943

Post by hpt » 26 Sep 2005, 09:18

Post by Lupo Solitario » 26 Sep 2005, 15:50

Post by luigi » 26 Sep 2005, 16:07

A further question is: how strong was the German force attacking the Acqui division? IIRC the debate is still hot on how strong and punishing the German air support was. I seem to remember that the attacking force wasn't really superior in therms of pure numbers, but rather that the common faults of the Italian Army (forces divided, lack of coordination/mobility etc.) made that the same attacking unit could sack and destroy little by little the Italian units by gaining local superiority. An Italian witness I read somewhere in the net recalled the Germans he saw while his journey to captivity as "exhausted".

Are there numbers about the relative strenghts? And in few words, if possible, how would you describe this "campaign"?

Post by Lupo Solitario » 26 Sep 2005, 16:57

interesting question. the german garrison of Cefalonia was formed by the 966th Fortress Regiment (two battalions) and a StuG battery. about 2000 men at all of not so good quality. The invading force was formed by part of 1st Gebirgsjager Division, an elite formation, and of 104th Jager Division for a total of about 4-5 infantry battalions and some artillery in support.
Italians had substantially six infantry battalions, more artillery and no armor. There were more italians than germans but german troops were elite troops, better trained and well fitted. Italians were a garrison forgotten for two years.

The campaign lasted more or less a week: pratically the italians failed in destroying the 966th Regiment and this gave germans a sure beachhead where land reinforces. After that, using air supremacy and large use of Stukas, germans attacked, broke italian lines and started the slaughter.

Post by hpt » 28 Sep 2005, 06:20

Thanks to Lupo Solitario and Luigi over there in Italy for their helpful contributions.

I have emailed the son of an officer killed at Cephalonia who runs a website and hope to have his input on the MVSN presence on the two islands at the time of the massacre/campaign.

Post by Lupo Solitario » 28 Sep 2005, 18:39

well, I found a better source which tells that the 19th Blackshirt Battalion was at Prevesa, on Greece mainland in armistice days (and , incidentally, passed "weapons and baggage" to germans as soon as possible. It became an italian SS unit in successive months).
It matched the point that there were no blackshirt units on Cefalonia in September 1943

BTW could you tell us the site you name?

Can anyone give me a list of all generals serving in Cephalonia at the time of September 1943? I know only two: Gandin and Gherzi. If theres other generals, what happen to them?


Our 100th Bomb Group Foundation Historians are actively working to collect and preserve photographs, documents, stories, and other artifacts related to the Hundredth. If you have any questions, feedback, or information regarding 100th Bomb Group veterans to share with us, please send us an email and we will respond as soon as possible.

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Reunions

Reunion Information

100th BOMB GROUP FOUNDATION
2021 DALLAS REUNION.
Oct 28-31, 2021

Omni Las Colinas Hotel
221 Las Colinas Blvd E
Irving, TX 75039

Make plans today to join the 100th BGF Dallas Reunion and Symposium! A 100th gathering is a time to share exciting history, renew friendships and form new connections. Our historians and members actively search for and discover missing pieces of group history, and a reunion event is the best place to share all this through our Symposium, presentations, exhibits and more.

Sign up TODAY for both hotel and reunion event (note early registration price):

Low group rate of $139/night for standard guestroom

Reunion registration link:

The Omni Las Colinas is a superior hotel venue with plenty of indoor and outdoor space. Listening to your concerns, we planned a spacious event for attendees. Our Friday museum day allows you to choose coach bus transport or driving a private vehicle. Lunches and dinners are included in your registration, breakfast is optional. While Saturday night’s dinner will be buffet-style, we offer our traditional beef, salmon, chicken and vegetarian options (GF upon request). The Omni is renowned for its quality facility, cuisine and service.

Wednesday Oct. 27

  • 6-8pm Arrive early! Join the optional Early Arrivals Dinner – a “Tex-Mex” Buffet will be enjoyed outdoors on the Omni’s expansive patio

Thursday Oct. 28

  • 8:30am-12:30pm Optional Discover Dallas Tour, professionally-guided tour
  • 12 Noon Reunion begins & historical exhibits open
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Friday Oct. 29

  • All day at Frontiers of Flight Museum – vintage planes, lunch, WASP Symposium and more (bus transport available)
  • 11:30-1:30 Lunch
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Saturday Oct. 30

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  • 10:30am An insider’s look at Masters of the Air mini-series production in England bringing the 100th BG to life!
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In addition to our group’s inviting programs and options, the Commemorative Air Force announced it will host its Wings Over Dallas air show the same weekend – join us Thursday through Saturday and then spend Sunday at their event!

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History

The Great Depression continued into the early part of the forties decade.

We were getting close to war anyway, but it was the December 7th, 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor that hurried us to war, abandoning our isolationism.

Only when our government began rationing, recruited 6 million defense workers, drafted 6 million soldiers, and ran massive deficits to fight World War II, did the Great Depression finally end.

War production pulled us out. The historic high for unemployment was 21.2 percent during the Great Depression the historic low was 1.2 percent in 1944, during World War II.

Pent-up consumer demand fueled exceptionally strong economic growth in the post war period. The automobile industry successfully converted back to producing cars, and new industries such as aviation and electronics grew by leaps and bounds. A housing boom, stimulated in part by easily affordable mortgages for returning members of the military, added to the expansion. The nation’s gross national product rose from about $200,000 million in 1940 to $300,000 million in 1950 and to more than $500,000 million in 1960. At the same time, the jump in postwar births, known as the “baby boom,” increased the number of consumers. More and more Americans joined the middle class.

Economic aid flowed to war-ravaged European countries under the Marshall Plan, which also helped maintain markets for numerous U.S. goods. And the government itself recognized its central role in economic affairs. The Employment Act of 1946 stated as government policy “to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power.”

Be sure to visit the 1940s timeline: HERE A brief history of World War II: HERE


Teachers College Heights, Vol. 10, No. 2 - Public Affairs (WKU)

Teachers College Heights available online at <a href="https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_records/8451">https://digitalcommons.wku.edu/dlsc_ua_records/8451</a> Articles: Rural School Supervision Manual Arts Rural School Attendance Trained Teachers in Rural School Fine Fall Attendance for Western A Four-Year College Course Leading to the B.S. Degree Cherry, Henry. Western Welcomes the Born Teacher as Well as Those Who Wish to be Made Read This Before Deciding Teachers College & Our Rural People Where Shall I Go to School? Dr. A.L. Crabb Former Students & Other Friends Lyceum Course Including All-Star Concert Series Notes Library - Old & New Museum Athlet


21 September 1943 - History

This Act may be cited as the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2013 .

The table of contents of this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title table of contents. Sec. 2. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Title I—Chickahominy Indian Tribe Sec. 101. Findings. Sec. 102. Definitions. Sec. 103. Federal recognition. Sec. 104. Membership governing documents. Sec. 105. Governing body. Sec. 106. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 107. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title II—Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division Sec. 201. Findings. Sec. 202. Definitions. Sec. 203. Federal recognition. Sec. 204. Membership governing documents. Sec. 205. Governing body. Sec. 206. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 207. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title III—Upper Mattaponi Tribe Sec. 301. Findings. Sec. 302. Definitions. Sec. 303. Federal recognition. Sec. 304. Membership governing documents. Sec. 305. Governing body. Sec. 306. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 307. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title IV—Rappahannock Tribe, Inc. Sec. 401. Findings. Sec. 402. Definitions. Sec. 403. Federal recognition. Sec. 404. Membership governing documents. Sec. 405. Governing body. Sec. 406. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 407. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title V—Monacan Indian Nation Sec. 501. Findings. Sec. 502. Definitions. Sec. 503. Federal recognition. Sec. 504. Membership governing documents. Sec. 505. Governing body. Sec. 506. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 507. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title VI—Nansemond Indian Tribe Sec. 601. Findings. Sec. 602. Definitions. Sec. 603. Federal recognition. Sec. 604. Membership governing documents. Sec. 605. Governing body. Sec. 606. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 607. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title VII—Eminent domain Sec. 701. Limitation. 2. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

Nothing in this Act affects the application of section 109 of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 ( 25 U.S.C. 1919 ).

I Chickahominy Indian Tribe 101. Findings

in 1607, when the English settlers set shore along the Virginia coastline, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was 1 of about 30 tribes that received them

in 1614, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe entered into a treaty with Sir Thomas Dale, Governor of the Jamestown Colony, under which—

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe agreed to provide 2 bushels of corn per man and send warriors to protect the English and

Sir Thomas Dale agreed in return to allow the Tribe to continue to practice its own tribal governance

in 1646, a treaty was signed which forced the Chickahominy from their homeland to the area around the York Mattaponi River in present-day King William County, leading to the formation of a reservation

in 1677, following Bacon’s Rebellion, the Queen of Pamunkey signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on behalf of the Chickahominy

in 1702, the Chickahominy were forced from their reservation, which caused the loss of a land base

in 1711, the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg established a grammar school for Indians called Brafferton College

a Chickahominy child was 1 of the first Indians to attend Brafferton College

in 1750, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to migrate from King William County back to the area around the Chickahominy River in New Kent and Charles City Counties

in 1793, a Baptist missionary named Bradby took refuge with the Chickahominy and took a Chickahominy woman as his wife

in 1831, the names of the ancestors of the modern-day Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to appear in the Charles City County census records

in 1901, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe formed Samaria Baptist Church

from 1901 to 1935, Chickahominy men were assessed a tribal tax so that their children could receive an education

the Tribe used the proceeds from the tax to build the first Samaria Indian School, buy supplies, and pay a teacher’s salary

in 1919, C. Lee Moore, Auditor of Public Accounts for Virginia, told Chickahominy Chief O.W. Adkins that he had instructed the Commissioner of Revenue for Charles City County to record Chickahominy tribal members on the county tax rolls as Indian, and not as White or colored

during the period of 1920 through 1930, various Governors of the Commonwealth of Virginia wrote letters of introduction for Chickahominy Chiefs who had official business with Federal agencies in Washington, DC

in 1934, Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins wrote to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, requesting money to acquire land for the Chickahominy Indian Tribe’s use, to build school, medical, and library facilities and to buy tractors, implements, and seed

in 1934, John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wrote to Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins, informing him that Congress had passed the Act of June 18, 1934 (commonly known as the Indian Reorganization Act ) (25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.), but had not made the appropriation to fund the Act

in 1942, Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins wrote to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, asking for help in getting the proper racial designation on Selective Service records for Chickahominy soldiers

in 1943, John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, asked Douglas S. Freeman, editor of the Richmond News-Leader newspaper of Richmond, Virginia, to help Virginia Indians obtain proper racial designation on birth records

Collier stated that his office could not officially intervene because it had no responsibility for the Virginia Indians, as a matter largely of historical accident , but was interested in them as descendants of the original inhabitants of the region

in 1948, the Veterans’ Education Committee of the Virginia State Board of Education approved Samaria Indian School to provide training to veterans

that school was established and run by the Chickahominy Indian Tribe

in 1950, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe purchased and donated to the Charles City County School Board land to be used to build a modern school for students of the Chickahominy and other Virginia Indian tribes

the Samaria Indian School included students in grades 1 through 8

in 1961, Senator Sam Ervin, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, requested Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins to provide assistance in analyzing the status of the constitutional rights of Indians in your area

in 1967, the Charles City County school board closed Samaria Indian School and converted the school to a countywide primary school as a step toward full school integration of Indian and non-Indian students

in 1974, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe bought land and built a tribal center using monthly pledges from tribal members to finance the transactions

in 1983, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was granted recognition as an Indian tribe by the Commonwealth of Virginia, along with 5 other Indian tribes and

in 1985, Governor Gerald Baliles was the special guest at an intertribal Thanksgiving Day dinner hosted by the Chickahominy Indian Tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Chickahominy Indian Tribe.

103. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, and Henrico County, Virginia.

104. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

106. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

107. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

II Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division 201. Findings

in 1607, when the English settlers set shore along the Virginia coastline, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was 1 of about 30 tribes that received them

in 1614, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe entered into a treaty with Sir Thomas Dale, Governor of the Jamestown Colony, under which—

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe agreed to provide 2 bushels of corn per man and send warriors to protect the English and

Sir Thomas Dale agreed in return to allow the Tribe to continue to practice its own tribal governance

in 1646, a treaty was signed which forced the Chickahominy from their homeland to the area around the York River in present-day King William County, leading to the formation of a reservation

in 1677, following Bacon’s Rebellion, the Queen of Pamunkey signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on behalf of the Chickahominy

in 1702, the Chickahominy were forced from their reservation, which caused the loss of a land base

in 1711, the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg established a grammar school for Indians called Brafferton College

a Chickahominy child was 1 of the first Indians to attend Brafferton College

in 1750, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to migrate from King William County back to the area around the Chickahominy River in New Kent and Charles City Counties

in 1793, a Baptist missionary named Bradby took refuge with the Chickahominy and took a Chickahominy woman as his wife

in 1831, the names of the ancestors of the modern-day Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to appear in the Charles City County census records

in 1870, a census revealed an enclave of Indians in New Kent County that is believed to be the beginning of the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

other records were destroyed when the New Kent County courthouse was burned, leaving a State census as the only record covering that period

in 1901, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe formed Samaria Baptist Church

from 1901 to 1935, Chickahominy men were assessed a tribal tax so that their children could receive an education

the Tribe used the proceeds from the tax to build the first Samaria Indian School, buy supplies, and pay a teacher’s salary

in 1910, a 1-room school covering grades 1 through 8 was established in New Kent County for the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

during the period of 1920 through 1921, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division began forming a tribal government

E.P. Bradby, the founder of the Tribe, was elected to be Chief

in 1922, Tsena Commocko Baptist Church was organized

in 1925, a certificate of incorporation was issued to the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

in 1950, the 1-room Indian school in New Kent County was closed and students were bused to Samaria Indian School in Charles City County

in 1967, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe and the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division lost their schools as a result of the required integration of students

during the period of 1982 through 1984, Tsena Commocko Baptist Church built a new sanctuary to accommodate church growth

in 1983 the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division was granted State recognition along with 5 other Virginia Indian tribes

the Virginia Council on Indians was organized as a State agency and

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division was granted a seat on the Council

in 1988, a nonprofit organization known as the United Indians of Virginia was formed and

Chief Marvin Strongoak Bradby of the Eastern Band of the Chickahominy presently chairs the organization.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division.

203. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all future services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, and Henrico County, Virginia.

204. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

206. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

207. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

III Upper Mattaponi Tribe 301. Findings

during the period of 1607 through 1646, the Chickahominy Indian Tribes—

lived approximately 20 miles from Jamestown and

were significantly involved in English-Indian affairs

Mattaponi Indians, who later joined the Chickahominy Indians, lived a greater distance from Jamestown

in 1646, the Chickahominy Indians moved to Mattaponi River basin, away from the English

in 1661, the Chickahominy Indians sold land at a place known as the cliffs on the Mattaponi River

in 1669, the Chickahominy Indians—

appeared in the Virginia Colony’s census of Indian bowmen and

lived in New Kent County, which included the Mattaponi River basin at that time

in 1677, the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indians were subjects of the Queen of Pamunkey, who was a signatory to the Treaty of 1677 with the King of England

in 1683, after a Mattaponi town was attacked by Seneca Indians, the Mattaponi Indians took refuge with the Chickahominy Indians, and the history of the 2 groups was intertwined for many years thereafter

in 1695, the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indians—

were assigned a reservation by the Virginia Colony and

traded land of the reservation for land at the place known as the cliffs (which, as of the date of enactment of this Act, is the Mattaponi Indian Reservation), which had been owned by the Mattaponi Indians before 1661

in 1711, a Chickahominy boy attended the Indian School at the College of William and Mary

in 1726, the Virginia Colony discontinued funding of interpreters for the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indian Tribes

James Adams, who served as an interpreter to the Indian tribes known as of the date of enactment of this Act as the Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe and Chickahominy Indian Tribe , elected to stay with the Upper Mattaponi Indians

today, a majority of the Upper Mattaponi Indians have Adams as their surname

in 1787, Thomas Jefferson, in Notes on the Commonwealth of Virginia, mentioned the Mattaponi Indians on a reservation in King William County and said that Chickahominy Indians were blended with the Mattaponi Indians and nearby Pamunkey Indians

in 1850, the census of the United States revealed a nucleus of approximately 10 families, all ancestral to modern Upper Mattaponi Indians, living in central King William County, Virginia, approximately 10 miles from the reservation

during the period of 1853 through 1884, King William County marriage records listed Upper Mattaponis as Indians in marrying people residing on the reservation

during the period of 1884 through the present, county marriage records usually refer to Upper Mattaponis as Indians

in 1901, Smithsonian anthropologist James Mooney heard about the Upper Mattaponi Indians but did not visit them

in 1928, University of Pennsylvania anthropologist Frank Speck published a book on modern Virginia Indians with a section on the Upper Mattaponis

from 1929 until 1930, the leadership of the Upper Mattaponi Indians opposed the use of a colored designation in the 1930 United States census and won a compromise in which the Indian ancestry of the Upper Mattaponis was recorded but questioned

during the period of 1942 through 1945—

the leadership of the Upper Mattaponi Indians, with the help of Frank Speck and others, fought against the induction of young men of the Tribe into colored units in the Armed Forces of the United States and

a tribal roll for the Upper Mattaponi Indians was compiled

from 1945 to 1946, negotiations took place to admit some of the young people of the Upper Mattaponi to high schools for Federal Indians (especially at Cherokee) because no high school coursework was available for Indians in Virginia schools and

in 1983, the Upper Mattaponi Indians applied for and won State recognition as an Indian tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Upper Mattaponi Tribe.

303. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area within 25 miles of the Sharon Indian School at 13383 King William Road, King William County, Virginia.

304. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

306. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King William County, Caroline County, Hanover County, King and Queen County, and New Kent County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King William County, Caroline County, Hanover County, King and Queen County, and New Kent County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

307. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

IV Rappahannock Tribe, Inc. 401. Findings

during the initial months after Virginia was settled, the Rappahannock Indians had 3 encounters with Captain John Smith

the first encounter occurred when the Rappahannock weroance (headman)—

traveled to Quiyocohannock (a principal town across the James River from Jamestown), where he met with Smith to determine whether Smith had been the great man who had previously sailed into the Rappahannock River, killed a Rappahannock weroance, and kidnapped Rappahannock people and

determined that Smith was too short to be that great man

on a second meeting, during John Smith’s captivity (December 16, 1607 to January 8, 1608), Smith was taken to the Rappahannock principal village to show the people that Smith was not the great man

a third meeting took place during Smith’s exploration of the Chesapeake Bay (July to September 1608), when, after the Moraughtacund Indians had stolen 3 women from the Rappahannock King, Smith was prevailed upon to facilitate a peaceful truce between the Rappahannock and the Moraughtacund Indians

in the settlement, Smith had the 2 Indian tribes meet on the spot of their first fight

when it was established that both groups wanted peace, Smith told the Rappahannock King to select which of the 3 stolen women he wanted

the Moraughtacund King was given second choice among the 2 remaining women, and Mosco, a Wighcocomoco (on the Potomac River) guide, was given the third woman

in 1645, Captain William Claiborne tried unsuccessfully to establish treaty relations with the Rappahannocks, as the Rappahannocks had not participated in the Pamunkey-led uprising in 1644, and the English wanted to treat with the Rappahannocks or any other Indians not in amity with Opechancanough, concerning serving the county against the Pamunkeys

in April 1651, the Rappahannocks conveyed a tract of land to an English settler, Colonel Morre Fauntleroy

the deed for the conveyance was signed by Accopatough, weroance of the Rappahannock Indians

in September 1653, Lancaster County signed a treaty with Rappahannock Indians, the terms of which treaty—

gave Rappahannocks the rights of Englishmen in the county court and

attempted to make the Rappahannocks more accountable under English law

in September 1653, Lancaster County defined and marked the bounds of its Indian settlements

according to the Lancaster clerk of court, the tribe called the great Rappahannocks lived on the Rappahannock Creek just across the river above Tappahannock

in September 1656, (Old) Rappahannock County (which, as of the date of enactment of this Act, is comprised of Richmond and Essex Counties, Virginia) signed a treaty with Rappahannock Indians that—

mirrored the Lancaster County treaty from 1653 and

Rappahannocks were to be rewarded, in Roanoke, for returning English fugitives and

the English encouraged the Rappahannocks to send their children to live among the English as servants, who the English promised would be well-treated

in 1658, the Virginia Assembly revised a 1652 Act stating that there be no grants of land to any Englishman whatsoever de futuro until the Indians be first served with the proportion of 50 acres of land for each bowman

in 1669, the colony conducted a census of Virginia Indians

as of the date of that census—

the majority of the Rappahannocks were residing at their hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River and

at the time of the visit, census-takers were counting only the Indian tribes along the rivers, which explains why only 30 Rappahannock bowmen were counted on that river

the Rappahannocks used the hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River as their primary residence until the Rappahannocks were removed in 1684

in May 1677, the Treaty of Middle Plantation was signed with England

the Pamunkey Queen Cockacoeske signed on behalf of the Rappahannocks, who were supposed to be her tributaries , but before the treaty could be ratified, the Queen of Pamunkey complained to the Virginia Colonial Council that she was having trouble with Rappahannocks and Chickahominies, supposedly tributaries of hers

in November 1682, the Virginia Colonial Council established a reservation for the Rappahannock Indians of 3,474 acres about the town where they dwelt

the Rappahannock town was the hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River, where the Rappahannocks had lived throughout the 1670s

the acreage allotment of the reservation was based on the 1658 Indian land act, which translates into a bowman population of 70, or an approximate total Rappahannock population of 350

in 1683, following raids by Iroquoian warriors on both Indian and English settlements, the Virginia Colonial Council ordered the Rap­pa­han­nocks to leave their reservation and unite with the Nanzatico Indians at Nanzatico Indian Town, which was located across and up the Rappahannock River some 30 miles

between 1687 and 1699, the Rap­pa­han­nocks migrated out of Nanzatico, returning to the south side of the Rappahannock River at Portobacco Indian Town

in 1706, by order of Essex County, Lieutenant Richard Covington escorted the Por­to­bac­cos and Rappahannocks out of Portobacco Indian Town, out of Essex County, and into King and Queen County where they settled along the ridgeline between the Rappahannock and Mattaponi Rivers, the site of their ancient hunting village and 1682 reservation

during the 1760s, 3 Rappahannock girls were raised on Thomas Nelson’s Bleak Hill Plantation in King William County

1 married a Johnson man and

1 had 2 children, Edmund and Carter Nelson, fathered by Thomas Cary Nelson

in the 19th century, those Saunders, Johnson, and Nelson families are among the core Rappahannock families from which the modern Tribe traces its descent

in 1819 and 1820, Edward Bird, John Bird (and his wife), Carter Nelson, Edmund Nelson, and Carter Spurlock (all Rappahannock ancestors) were listed on the tax roles of King and Queen County and taxed at the county poor rate

Edmund Bird was added to the tax roles in 1821

those tax records are significant documentation because the great majority of pre-1864 records for King and Queen County were destroyed by fire

beginning in 1819, and continuing through the 1880s, there was a solid Rappahannock presence in the membership at Upper Essex Baptist Church

that was the first instance of conversion to Christianity by at least some Rappahannock Indians

while 26 identifiable and traceable Rappahannock surnames appear on the pre-1863 membership list, and 28 were listed on the 1863 membership roster, the number of surnames listed had declined to 12 in 1878 and had risen only slightly to 14 by 1888

a reason for the decline is that in 1870, a Methodist circuit rider, Joseph Mastin, secured funds to purchase land and construct St. Stephens Baptist Church for the Rappahannocks living nearby in Caroline County

Mastin referred to the Rappahannocks during the period of 1850 to 1870 as Indians, having a great need for moral and Christian guidance

St. Stephens was the dominant tribal church until the Rappahannock Indian Baptist Church was established in 1964

at both churches, the core Rappahannock family names of Bird, Clarke, Fortune, Johnson, Nelson, Parker, and Richardson predominate

during the early 1900s, James Mooney, noted anthropologist, maintained correspondence with the Rappahannocks, surveying them and instructing them on how to formalize their tribal government

in November 1920, Speck visited the Rappahannocks and assisted them in organizing the fight for their sovereign rights

in 1921, the Rappahannocks were granted a charter from the Commonwealth of Virginia formalizing their tribal government

Speck began a professional relationship with the Tribe that would last more than 30 years and document Rappahannock history and traditions as never before

in April 1921, Rappahannock Chief George Nelson asked the Governor of Virginia, Westmoreland Davis, to forward a proclamation to the President of the United States, along with an appended list of tribal members and a handwritten copy of the proclamation itself

the letter concerned Indian freedom of speech and assembly nationwide

in 1922, the Rappahannocks established a formal school at Lloyds, Essex County, Virginia

prior to establishment of the school, Rappahannock children were taught by a tribal member in Central Point, Caroline County, Virginia

in December 1923, Rappahannock Chief George Nelson testified before Congress appealing for a $50,000 appropriation to establish an Indian school in Virginia

in 1930, the Rappahannocks were engaged in an ongoing dispute with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the United States Census Bureau about their classification in the 1930 Federal census

in January 1930, Rappahannock Chief Otho S. Nelson wrote to Leon Truesdell, Chief Statistician of the United States Census Bureau, asking that the 218 enrolled Rappahannocks be listed as Indians

in February 1930, Truesdell replied to Nelson saying that special instructions were being given about classifying Indians

in April 1930, Nelson wrote to William M. Steuart at the Census Bureau asking about the enumerators’ failure to classify his people as Indians, saying that enumerators had not asked the question about race when they interviewed his people

in a followup letter to Truesdell, Nelson reported that the enumerators were flatly denying his people’s request to be listed as Indians and that the race question was completely avoided during interviews

the Rappahannocks had spoken with Caroline and Essex County enumerators, and with John M.W. Green at that point, without success

Nelson asked Truesdell to list people as Indians if he sent a list of members

the matter was settled by William Steuart, who concluded that the Bureau’s rule was that people of Indian descent could be classified as Indian only if Indian blood predominated and Indian identity was accepted in the local community

the Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau classed all nonreservation Indians as Negro , and it failed to see why an exception should be made for the Rappahannocks

therefore, in 1925, the Indian Rights Association took on the Rappahannock case to assist the Rappahannocks in fighting for their recognition and rights as an Indian tribe

during the Second World War, the Pamunkeys, Mattaponis, Chickahominies, and Rap­pa­han­nocks had to fight the draft boards with respect to their racial identities

the Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau insisted that certain Indian draftees be inducted into Negro units

finally, 3 Rappahannocks were convicted of violating the Federal draft laws and, after spending time in a Federal prison, were granted conscientious objector status and served out the remainder of the war working in military hospitals

in 1943, Frank Speck noted that there were approximately 25 communities of Indians left in the Eastern United States that were entitled to Indian classification, including the Rappahannocks

in the 1940s, Leon Truesdell, Chief Statistician, of the United States Census Bureau, listed 118 members in the Rappahannock Tribe in the Indian population of Virginia

on April 25, 1940, the Office of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior included the Rappahannocks on a list of Indian tribes classified by State and by agency

in 1948, the Smithsonian Institution Annual Report included an article by William Harlen Gilbert entitled, Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States , which included and described the Rappahannock Tribe

in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Rappahannocks operated a school at Indian Neck

the State agreed to pay a tribal teacher to teach 10 students bused by King and Queen County to Sharon Indian School in King William County, Virginia

in 1965, Rappahannock students entered Marriott High School (a White public school) by executive order of the Governor of Virginia

in 1972, the Rappahannocks worked with the Coalition of Eastern Native Americans to fight for Federal recognition

in 1979, the Coalition established a pottery and artisans company, operating with other Virginia tribes

in 1980, the Rappahannocks received funding through the Administration for Native Americans of the Department of Health and Human Services to develop an economic program for the Tribe and

in 1983, the Rappahannocks received State recognition as an Indian tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the organization possessing the legal name Rappahannock Tribe, Inc.

The term Tribe does not include any other Indian tribe, subtribe, band, or splinter group the members of which represent themselves as Rappahannock Indians.

403. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of King and Queen County, Caroline County, Essex County, and King William County, Virginia.

404. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

406. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King and Queen County, Stafford County, Spotsylvania County, Richmond County, Essex County, and Caroline County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King and Queen County, Richmond County, Lancaster County, King George County, Essex County, Caroline County, New Kent County, King William County, and James City County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

407. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

V Monacan Indian Nation 501. Findings

in 1677, the Monacan Tribe signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation between Charles II of England and 12 Indian Kings and Chief Men

in 1722, in the Treaty of Albany, Governor Spotswood negotiated to save the Virginia Indians from extinction at the hands of the Iroquois

specifically mentioned in the negotiations were the Monacan tribes of the Totero (Tutelo), Saponi, Ocheneeches (Occaneechi), Stengenocks, and Meipontskys

in 1790, the first national census recorded Benjamin Evans and Robert Johns, both ancestors of the present Monacan community, listed as white with mulatto children

in 1782, tax records also began for those families

in 1850, the United States census recorded 29 families, mostly large, with Monacan surnames, the members of which are genealogically related to the present community

in 1870, a log structure was built at the Bear Mountain Indian Mission

in 1908, the structure became an Episcopal Mission and, as of the date of enactment of this Act, the structure is listed as a landmark on the National Register of Historic Places

in 1920, 304 Amherst Indians were identified in the United States census

from 1930 through 1931, numerous letters from Monacans to the Bureau of the Census resulted from the decision of Dr. Walter Plecker, former head of the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Commonwealth of Virginia, not to allow Indians to register as Indians for the 1930 census

the Monacans eventually succeeded in being allowed to claim their race, albeit with an asterisk attached to a note from Dr. Plecker stating that there were no Indians in Virginia

in 1947, D’Arcy McNickle, a Salish Indian, saw some of the children at the Amherst Mission and requested that the Cherokee Agency visit them because they appeared to be Indian

that letter was forwarded to the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Chicago, Illinois

Chief Jarrett Blythe of the Eastern Band of Cherokee did visit the Mission and wrote that he would be willing to accept these children in the Cherokee school

in 1979, a Federal Coalition of Eastern Native Americans established the entity known as Monacan Co-operative Pottery at the Amherst Mission

some important pieces were produced at Monacan Co-operative Pottery, including a piece that was sold to the Smithsonian Institution

the Mattaponi-Pamunkey-Monacan Consortium, established in 1981, has since been organized as a nonprofit corporation that serves as a vehicle to obtain funds for those Indian tribes from the Department of Labor under Native American programs

in 1989, the Monacan Tribe was recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, which enabled the Tribe to apply for grants and participate in other programs and

in 1993, the Monacan Tribe received tax-exempt status as a nonprofit corporation from the Internal Revenue Service.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Monacan Indian Nation.

503. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of all land within 25 miles from the center of Amherst, Virginia.

504. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

506. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of Amherst County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of Amherst County, Virginia, and those parcels in Rockbridge County, Virginia (subject to the consent of the local unit of government), owned by Mr. J. Poole, described as East 731 Sandbridge (encompassing approximately 4.74 acres) and East 731 (encompassing approximately 5.12 acres).

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

507. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

VI Nansemond Indian Tribe 601. Findings

from 1607 until 1646, Nansemond Indians—

lived approximately 30 miles from Jamestown and

were significantly involved in English-Indian affairs

after 1646, there were 2 sections of Nansemonds in communication with each other, the Christianized Nansemonds in Norfolk County, who lived as citizens, and the traditionalist Nansemonds, who lived further west

in 1638, according to an entry in a 17th century sermon book still owned by the Chief’s family, a Norfolk County Englishman married a Nan­se­mond woman

that man and woman are lineal ancestors of all of members of the Nansemond Indian tribe alive as of the date of enactment of this Act, as are some of the traditionalist Nansemonds

in 1669, the 2 Nansemond sections appeared in Virginia Colony’s census of Indian bow­men

in 1677, Nansemond Indians were signatories to the Treaty of 1677 with the King of England

in 1700 and 1704, the Nansemonds and other Virginia Indian tribes were prevented by Virginia Colony from making a separate peace with the Iroquois

Virginia represented those Indian tribes in the final Treaty of Albany, 1722

in 1711, a Nansemond boy attended the Indian School at the College of William and Mary

in 1727, Norfolk County granted William Bass and his kinsmen the Indian privileges of clearing swamp land and bearing arms (which privileges were forbidden to other non-Whites) because of their Nansemond ancestry, which meant that Bass and his kinsmen were original inhabitants of that land

in 1742, Norfolk County issued a certificate of Nansemond descent to William Bass

from the 1740s to the 1790s, the traditionalist section of the Nansemond tribe, 40 miles west of the Christianized Nansemonds, was dealing with reservation land

the last surviving members of that section sold out in 1792 with the permission of the Commonwealth of Virginia

in 1797, Norfolk County issued a certificate stating that William Bass was of Indian and English descent, and that his Indian line of ancestry ran directly back to the early 18th century elder in a traditionalist section of Nansemonds on the reservation

in 1833, Virginia enacted a law enabling people of European and Indian descent to obtain a special certificate of ancestry

the law originated from the county in which Nansemonds lived, and mostly Nansemonds, with a few people from other counties, took advantage of the new law

a Methodist mission established around 1850 for Nansemonds is currently a standard Methodist congregation with Nansemond members

in 1901, Smithsonian anthropologist James Mooney—

visited the Nansemonds and

completed a tribal census that counted 61 households and was later published

in 1922, Nansemonds were given a special Indian school in the segregated school system of Norfolk County

the school survived only a few years

in 1928, University of Pennsylvania anthropologist Frank Speck published a book on modern Virginia Indians that included a section on the Nansemonds and

the Nansemonds were organized formally, with elected officers, in 1984, and later applied for and received State recognition.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Nansemond Indian Tribe.

603. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq. )) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of the cities of Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Virginia.

604. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

606. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of the city of Suffolk, the city of Chesapeake, or Isle of Wight County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of the city of Suffolk, the city of Chesapeake, or Isle of Wight County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than three years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq. ) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

607. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

VII Eminent domain 701. Limitation

Eminent domain may not be used to acquire lands in fee or in trust for an Indian tribe recognized under this Act.


When they discover that Patriarch Cyril of Alexandria intends to open the Council of Ephesus without waiting for the arrival of Patriarch John of Antioch, who is supposed to be its president (John has been delayed by flooding), bishops of the East sign a formal act demanding delay. Cyril will ignore them and condemn Patriarch Nestorius of Constantinople because of his christology and order John to break communion with him.

Authority for the date: Wace, Henry. A Dictionary of Christian Biography and Literature to the End of the Sixth Century A.D.

Francis Fletcher, chaplain to Sir Francis Drake, reads from the Anglican Book of Common Prayer somewhere in California on &ldquothe first Sunday after Trinity&rdquo&mdashthe first time the English prayer book is known to have been used in the New World. A number of Indians gather to watch. Captain Drake's rough sailors, who have just plundered their way up the Spanish coast, lift their hands to heaven and pray God to open the eyes of the Indian idolaters &ldquoto the knowledge of him and of Jesus Christ the salvation of the Gentiles.&rdquo

Authority for the date: Drake, Francis (from notes by Francis Fletcher etc). The World Encompassed. London: Nicholas Bovrne, 1628.

The men of Groton, Massachusetts, vote to make Samuel Willard their pastor &ldquofor as long as he lives.&rdquo Several years later an Indian raid will destroy the town and Willard will move to Boston where he will rise in prominence.

Authority for the date: Van Dyken, Seymour. Samuel Willard, 1640-1707. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1972.

John Flavel, a godly pastor in Dartmouth, England, preaches his last sermon, taking as his text 1 Corinthians 10: 12 &ldquoWherefore let him that stands take heed lest he fall,&rdquo urging those who are careless of their Christian profession to show a deeper concern for their souls. He had written books urging full committment to Christ and was known for his passion in prayer. For instance, once learning that a sea battle was in progress and knowing that many Dartmouth boys were in the navy, he led his people in prayer and fasting. Not one of Dartmouth&rsquos many sailors died.

Authority for the date: Citation lost.

Cyrus McCormick, a Christian inventor and businessman from Virginia, patents the world&rsquos first truly workable reaper. He will make a fortune from it, much of which will go to charity.

Authority for the date: http://www.wisconsinhistory.org.

Angelina Grimké addresses a large &ldquomixed&rdquo audience of men and women in Boston, Massachusetts, the onset of bringing many women into active participation in the movement to abolish slavery, but also conclusively repulsing gender discrimination in her lectures.

Authority for the date: http://www.gilderlehrman.org/history-by-era/slavery-and-anti-slavery/essays/angelina-and-sarah-grimke-abolitionist-sisters&a

Death of Isaac McCoy, a missionary to American Indians. McCoy and his family had endured great privation and hardship in their pioneer life. He had been criticized for urging the transfer of Indians from their ancestral lands, but his writings show he was concerned they were being corrupted by contact with whites.


International Archives Week: Accountability, Collaboration, and Diversity #EmpoweringArchives

Today's post comes from Meg Phillips, External Affairs Liaison at the National Archives. The International Council on Archives (ICA) and the entire worldwide community of archivists celebrate International Archives Week from June 7 through June 11. The ICA is fostering a series of discussions this week on the theme #EmpoweringArchives. The goal is to focus &hellip Continue reading International Archives Week: Accountability, Collaboration, and Diversity #EmpoweringArchives


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The Apostle Thomas was born in the Galileian city of Pansada and was a fisherman. Hearing the good tidings of Jesus Christ, he left all and followed after him.

According to Holy Scripture, the holy Apostle Thomas did not believe the reports of the other disciples about the Resurrection of Jesus Christ: "Unless I see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will not believe" (John 20:25).

On the eighth day after the Resurrection, the Lord appeared to the Apostle Thomas and showed him His wounds. "My Lord and my God," the Apostle cried out (John 20:28). "Thomas, being once weaker in faith than the other apostles," says St John Chrysostom, "toiled through the grace of God more bravely, more zealously and tirelessly than them all, so that he went preaching over nearly all the earth, not fearing to proclaim the Word of God to savage nations."

Some icons depicting this event are inscribed "The Doubting Thomas." This is incorrect. In Greek, the inscription reads, "The Touching of Thomas." In Slavonic, it says, "The Belief of Thomas." When St Thomas touched the Life-giving side of the Lord, he no longer had any doubts. What is more, in the English language, the nickname of "Doubting Thomas" can convey the false impression of Thomas as being timid, lacking the full conviction of faith, or even being cowardly this concept of Thomas is neither historical nor Biblical, except in consideration of the vitally important moment in which Thomas touched the Resurrected Christ the momentary sinful fluctuation in faith being spectacularly reversed through Divine Grace as an opportunity to validate the bodily Resurrection. In John 11:16, Thomas expressed a desire to die with the Lord, in response to the other disciples' fear that the Pharisees would seek to kill Jesus should they re-enter Judea. The notion of Thomas as wavering or pusillanimous in his faith can be further dispelled in light of the Church Tradition regarding his evangelism, according to which, the holy Apostle founded Christian churches in Palestine, Mesopotamia, Parthia, Ethiopia and India. Church Traditon also indicates that Apostle Thomas baptized the Magicitation needed.

Preaching the Gospel earned the holy Apostle Thomas a martyr's death. For having converted the wife and son of the prefect of the Indian city of Meliapur (Melipur), the holy apostle was locked up in prison, suffered torture, and finally, pierced with five spears, he departed to the Lord. Part of the relics of the holy Apostle Thomas are in India, in Hungary and on Mt. Athos. The name of the Apostle Thomas is associated with the Arabian (or Arapet) Icon of the Mother of God (September 6).

Due to his evangelism in Syria and Persia, the Holy Apostle is highly regarded within the Eastern Orthodox Church of Antioch, the Church of Antioch (Syriac), and in the Assyrian Church of the East (which separated from Orthodoxy during the Nestorian schism). The Christian community in India is known as the St. Thomas Christians on account of the tradition that holds St. Thomas as their founder a dispute over the precise nature of this evangelism, and whether or not Thomas personally ministered within India, resulted in a schism between the Syriac Orthodox Church and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. An important early tradition concerning Thomas, that is of particular importance to Syriac Christians, is the story of the [1], and which is connected in Eastern Orthodoxy with the tradition of the Icon Not Made by Hands.

In recent years the image of the Holy Apostle has been further mired by the media attention given to the recently discovered heretical Gnostic Gospel of Thomas, part of the Gnostic Texts of Nag Hammadi, and also the Gnostic Infancy Gospel of Thomas. These Gospels are associated with the Gnostic heresy, and no Orthodox church regards them as being Canonical additionally, they are almost universally considered to be pseudepigraphical, even among non-Orthodox Bible scholars. Cyril of Jerusalem attributed the Gospel of Thomas to the Manichees, saying of it "Let none read the Gospel according to Thomas: for it is the work not of one of the twelve Apostles, but of one of the three wicked disciples of Manes." Likewise, the Infancy Gospel of Thomas is generally considered to have been written no earlier than the second century (Irenaeus of Lyons may have referred to it in his seminal work Against Heresies). Thus, it is important that the Orthodox faithful reject any attribution of either of these heretical works to the Holy Apostle Thomas.

The Apostle Thomas should therefore be considered not merely as "Doubting Thomas", but rather, as someone whose faith did waver at one crucial moment, yet through the divine grace of Christ, this wavering was reversed into an opportunity for the demonstration of the actual bodily resurrection of the Lord, and for the concomitant scriptural refutation of Docetism and the Gnostic heresy. The false association of Thomas with Gnostic heretical works is all the more extraordinary in light of the fact that his personal experience, as recorded in the Orthodox, canonical, Gospel of John, discredits the Gnostic heresy that lies at the heart of the works allegedly authored by Thomas. In addition to having been the instrument by which the Lord disproved that pernicious heresy, through a remarkable application of grace reversing a sin into a moment of divine revelation, the Apostle Thomas should also be remembered as a great evangelist just as Peter and Paul made their way to Rome to evangelize the gentiles therein, and Andrew proceeded to the Northwest, Thomas ventured East in order to spread the same Gospel of peace

You were a disciple of Christ
And a member of the divine college of Apostles.
Having been weak in faith you doubted the Resurrection of Christ.
But by feeling the wounds you believed in His all-pure passion:
Pray now to Him, O all-praised Thomas to grant us peace and great mercy.
Kontakion (Tone 4)

Thomas, the faithful servant and disciple of Christ,
Filled with divine grace, cried out from the depth of his love:
You are my Lord and my God!

Thomas the Apostle
Thomas the Apostle (Biblical Hebrew: תומאס הקדוש‎ Ancient Greek: Θωμᾶς Coptic: ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ Classical Syriac: ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ‎ Ṯaumā s̲h̲liḥā (Thoma Sheliha) also called Didymus ("twin"), was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus according to the New Testament
Saint Thomas the Apostle
Apostle, preacher, Christian martyr
Born
1st century AD
Galilee, Roman Empire (present-day Israel)
Died
3 July AD 72[1][2]

Venerated in
Assyrian Church of the East
Catholic Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Church
Anglican Communion
Lutheran Church
Canonized
Pre-congregation
Major shrine
St. Thomas Cathedral Basilica in Chennai, India
Basilica of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy
Feast
3 July (Syro-Malabar, Syriac Catholic, Syriac Orthodox, Latin Catholic,[4] Anglican Communion)
21 December (Indian Orthodox, Latin Catholic (traditional calendar), Anglican Communion, Hispanic church)
26 Pashons and Sunday after Easter Thomas Sunday (Coptic Christianity)[5]
6 October and Sunday after Easter Thomas Sunday (Eastern Orthodox, Eastern Catholic)
Attributes
The Twin, placing his finger in the side of Christ, spear (means of his Christian martyrdom), square (his profession, a builder)
Patronage
India, Saint Thomas Christians, Sri Lanka, and Pula in Croatia
Thomas is informally referred to as "Doubting Thomas" because he doubted Jesus' resurrection when first told (in the Gospel of John account only), followed later by his confession of faith, "My Lord and my God," on seeing Jesus' wounded body.

Traditionally, Thomas is believed to have travelled outside the Roman Empire to preach the Gospel, travelling as far as Tamilakam which are the states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in present-day India.[3][6][7][8] According to tradition, Thomas reached Muziris, (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in the state of Kerala, India) in AD 50[9][10] and converted several people, founding what today are known as Saint Thomas Christians or Mar Thoma Nazranis. After his death, the reputed relics of Saint Thomas the Apostle were enshrined as far as Mesopotamia in the 3rd century, and later moved to various places.[11] In 1258, some of the relics were brought to Ortona, in Abruzzo, Italy, where they have been held in the Church of Saint Thomas the Apostle.[12] He is often regarded as the Patron Saint of India,[13][14] and the name Thoma remains quite popular among Saint Thomas Christians of India
Gospel of John

Thomas first speaks in the Gospel of John. In John 11:16, when Lazarus had recently died, the apostles do not wish to go back to Judea, where some Jews had attempted to stone Jesus. Thomas says: "Let us also go, that we may die with him. (KJV)[15]

Thomas speaks again in John 14:5. There, Jesus had just explained that he was going away to prepare a heavenly home for his followers, and that one day they would join him there. Thomas reacted by saying, "Lord, we know not whither thou goest and how can we know the way?"[16]

John 20:24–29 tells how doubting Thomas was skeptical at first when he heard that Jesus had risen from the dead and appeared to the other apostles, saying, "Except I shall see on his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe."[17] But when Jesus appeared later and invited Thomas to touch his wounds and behold him, Thomas showed his belief by saying, "My Lord and my God".[18] Jesus then said, "Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed [are] they that have not seen, and [yet] have believed

The name Thomas (Koine Greek: Θωμᾶς) given for the apostle in the New Testament is derived from the Aramaic or Classical Syriac: ܬܐܘܡܐ‎ Taumā/Toma, equivalently from Hebrew Teom, meaning "twin". The equivalent term for twin in Greek, which is also used in the New Testament, is Δίδυμος Didymos.

The Nag Hammadi copy of the Gospel of Thomas begins: "These are the secret sayings that the living Jesus spoke and Didymos, Judas Thomas, recorded." Early Syrian traditions also relate the apostle's full name as Judas Thomas.[20] Some have seen in the Acts of Thomas (written in east Syria in the early 3rd century, or perhaps as early as the first half of the 2nd century) an identification of Saint Thomas with the apostle Judas, Son of James, better known in English as Jude. However, the first sentence of the Acts follows the Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles in distinguishing the apostle Thomas and the apostle Judas son of James. Others, such as James Tabor, identify him as Judah, the brother of Jesus mentioned by Mark. In the Book of Thomas the Contender, part of the Nag Hammadi library, he is alleged to be a twin to Jesus: "Now, since it has been said that you are my twin and true companion, examine yourself…"[21]

A "Doubting Thomas" is a skeptic who refuses to believe without direct personal experience—a reference to the Apostle Thomas, due to his refusal to believe the resurrected Jesus had appeared to the ten other apostles, until he could see and feel the wounds received by Jesus on the cross.

When the feast of Saint Thomas was inserted in the Roman calendar in the 9th century, it was assigned to 21 December. The Martyrology of St. Jerome mentioned the apostle on 3 July, the date to which the Roman celebration was transferred in 1969, so that it would no longer interfere with the major ferial days of Advent.[22] 3 July was the day on which his relics were translated from Mylapore, a place along the coast of the Marina Beach, Chennai (Madras) in India, to the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia. Traditionalist Roman Catholics (who follow the General Roman Calendar of 1960 or earlier) and many Anglicans (including members of the Episcopal Church as well as members of the Church of England and the Lutheran Church, who worship according to the 1662 edition of the Book of Common Prayer),[23] still celebrate his feast day on 21 December. However, most modern liturgical calendars (including the Common Worship calendar of the Church of England) prefer 3 July.

The Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches celebrate his feast day on 6 October[24] (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian calendar, 6 October currently falls on 19 October of the modern Gregorian calendar). In addition, the next Sunday of the Easter (Pascha) is celebrated as the Sunday of Thomas, in commemoration of Thomas' question to Jesus, which led him to proclaim, according to Orthodox teaching, two natures of Jesus, both human and divine. Thomas is commemorated in common with all of the other apostles on 30 June (13 July), in a feast called the Synaxis of the Holy Apostles.[25] He is also associated with the "Arabian" (or "Arapet") icon of the Theotokos (Mother of God), which is commemorated on 6 September (19 September).[26] The Malankara Orthodox church celebrates his feast on three days, 3 July[27] (in memory of the relic translation to Edessa), 18 December (the Day he was lanced),[28] and 21 December (when he died).[29]

Later history and traditions

The Passing of Mary, adjudged heretical by Pope Gelasius I in 494, was attributed to Joseph of Arimathea.[30][31] The document states that Thomas was the only witness of the Assumption of Mary into heaven. The other apostles were miraculously transported to Jerusalem to witness her death. Thomas was left in India, but after her first burial, he was transported to her tomb, where he witnessed her bodily assumption into heaven, from which she dropped her girdle. In an inversion of the story of Thomas' doubts, the other apostles are skeptical of Thomas' story until they see the empty tomb and the girdle.[32] Thomas' receipt of the girdle is commonly depicted in medieval and pre-Tridentine Renaissance art,[33][34] the apostle's infamous doubting reduced to a metaphorical knot in the Bavarian baroque Mary Untier of Knots.[citation needed]

Postal Department of India brought out a stamp commemorating his mission to the country
Main articles: Saint Thomas Christians, Christianity in India, and Christianity in Kerala

Map of ancient Silk Road and Spice Route.
Thomas is traditionally believed to have sailed to India in AD 50 (but there is evidence of his being in Taxila in AD 43, where he did not have success) to spread the Christian faith, and is believed to have landed at the port of Muziris, (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor in modern-day Kerala state) where there was a Jewish community at the time.[3][6] The port was destroyed in 1341 by a massive flood that realigned the coasts. He is believed by the Saint Thomas Christian tradition to have established seven churches (communities) in Kerala. These churches are at Kodungallur, Palayoor, Kottakkavu (Paravur), Kokkamangalam, Niranam, Nilackal (Chayal), Kollam and Thiruvithamcode (half church).[35] Thomas baptized several families, namely Pakalomattom, Sankarapuri, Thayyil, Payyappilly, Kalli, Kaliyankal, Pattamukku.[36] Other families claim to have origins almost as far back as these and the religious historian Robert Eric Frykenberg notes that "Whatever dubious historicity may be attached to such local traditions, there can be little doubt as to their great antiquity or to their great appeal in popular imagination".[37]

It was to a land of dark people he was sent, to clothe them by Baptism in white robes. His grateful dawn dispelled India's painful darkness. It was his mission to espouse India to the One-Begotten. The merchant is blessed for having so great a treasure. Edessa thus became the blessed city by possessing the greatest pearl India could yield. Thomas works miracles in India, and at Edessa Thomas is destined to baptize peoples perverse and steeped in darkness, and that in the land of India.

— Hymns of Saint Ephrem, edited by Lamy (Ephr. Hymni et Sermones, IV).
Eusebius of Caesarea quotes Origen (died mid-3rd century) as having stated that Thomas was the apostle to the Parthians, but Thomas is better known as the missionary to India through the Acts of Thomas, perhaps written as late as c. 200. In Edessa, where his remains were venerated, the poet Saint Ephrem (died 373) wrote a hymn in which the Devil cries,[citation needed]

. Into what land shall I fly from the just?

I stirred up Death the Apostles to slay, that by their death I might escape their blows.

But harder still am I now stricken: the Apostle I slew in India has overtaken me in Edessa here and there he is all himself.

There went I, and there was he: here and there to my grief I find him.

— quoted in Medlycott 1905, ch. ii.
St. Ephrem, a doctor of Syriac Christianity, writes in the forty-second of his "Carmina Nisibina" that the Apostle was put to death in India, and that his remains were subsequently buried in Edessa, brought there by an unnamed merchant.[38]

A Syrian ecclesiastical calendar of an early date confirms the above and gives the merchant a name. The entry reads: "3 July, St. Thomas who was pierced with a lance in 'India'. His body is in Urhai (Edessa) having been brought there by the merchant Khabin. A great festival."[citation needed]

A long public tradition in Edessa honoring Thomas as the "Apostle of India" resulted in several surviving hymns, that are attributed to Ephrem, copied in codices of the 8th and 9th centuries. References in the hymns preserve the tradition that Thomas' bones were brought from India to Edessa by a merchant, and that the relics worked miracles both in India and Edessa. A pontiff assigned his feast day and a king and a queen erected his shrine. The Thomas traditions became embodied in Syriac liturgy, thus they were universally credited by the Christian community there. There is a legend that Thomas had met the biblical Magi on his way to India.[citation needed]

The tomb of Saint Thomas the Apostle in Mylapore, India
According to Eusebius' record, Thomas and Bartholomew were assigned to Parthia and India.[39][40] The Didascalia (dating from the end of the 3rd century) states, "India and all countries condering it, even to the farthest seas. received the apostolic ordinances from Judas Thomas, who was a guide and ruler in the church which he built." Moreover, there is a wealth of confirmatory information in the Syriac writings, liturgical books, and calendars of the Church of the East, not to mention the writings of the Fathers, the calendars, the sacramentaries, and the martyrologies of the Roman, Greek and Ethiopian churches.[citation needed]

An early 3rd-century Syriac work known as the Acts of Thomas[citation needed] connects the apostle's Indian ministry with two kings, one in the north and the other in the south. According to one of the legends in the Acts, Thomas was at first reluctant to accept this mission, but the Lord appeared to him in a night vision and said,

Fear not, Thomas. Go away to India and proclaim the Word, for my grace shall be with you." But the Apostle still demurred, so the Lord overruled the stubborn disciple by ordering circumstances so compelling that he was forced to accompany an 'Indian' merchant, Abbanes, as a slave to his native place in northwest 'India', where he found himself in the service of the Indo-Parthian king, Gondophares. According to the Acts of Thomas, the apostle's ministry resulted in many conversions throughout the kingdom, including the king and his brother.[citation needed]

Remains of some of his buildings, influenced by Greek architecture, indicate that he was a great builder. According to the legend, Thomas was a skilled carpenter and was bidden to build a palace for the king. However, the Apostle decided to teach the king a lesson by devoting the royal grant to acts of charity and thereby laying up treasure for the heavenly abode. Although little is known of the immediate growth of the church, Bar-Daisan (154–223) reports that in his time there were Christian tribes in India which claimed to have been converted by Thomas and to have books and relics to prove it.[citation needed] But at least by the year of the establishment of the Second Persian Empire (226), there were bishops of the Church of the East in northwest India (Afghanistan and Baluchistan), with laymen and clergy alike engaging in missionary activity.[citation needed]

Aside from a small remnant of the Church of the East in Kurdistan, the only other church to maintain a distinctive identity is the Saint Thomas Christian congregations along the Kerala in southwest India. According to the most ancient tradition of this church, Thomas evangelized this area and then crossed to the Coromandel Coast of southeast India, where, after carrying out a second mission, he died at Chennai. Throughout the period under review, the church in India was under the jurisdiction of Edessa, which was then under the Mesopotamian patriarchate at Seleucia-Ctesiphon and later at Baghdad and Mosul. Historian Vincent A. Smith says, "It must be admitted that a personal visit of the Apostle Thomas to South India was easily feasible in the traditional belief that he came by way of Socotra, where an ancient Christian settlement undoubtedly existed. I am now satisfied that the Christian church of South India is extremely ancient. ".[citation needed]

Thomas is believed to have left northwest India when invasion threatened and traveled by vessel to the Malabar Coast, possibly visiting southeast Arabia and Socotra en route, and landing at the former flourishing port of Muziris (modern-day North Paravur and Kodungalloor)[35] (c. 50 AD) in the company of a Jewish merchant Abbanes (Hebban). From there he is said to have preached the gospel throughout the Malabar coast. The various churches he founded were located mainly on the Periyar River and its tributaries and along the coast, where there were Jewish colonies. In accordance with apostolic custom, Thomas ordained teachers and leaders or elders, who were reported to be the earliest ministry of the Malabar Church.

Martyrdom of St. Thomas by Peter Paul Rubens
According to Syrian Christian tradition, Saint Thomas was allegedly killed at St.Thomas Mount, in Chennai, in 72 A.D July 3rd,and his body was interred in Mylapore.[41] Ephrem the Syrian states that the Apostle was martyred in India, and that his relics were taken then to Edessa. This is the earliest known record of his martyrdom.[42]

The records of Barbosa from early 16th century inform that the tomb was then maintained by a Muslim who kept a lamp burning there.[43]:237 The San Thome Basilica Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India presently located at the tomb was first built in the 16th century by the Portuguese and rebuilt in the 19th century.[44] St. Thomas Mount has been a revered site by Hindus, Muslims and Christians since at least the 16th century.[43]:31

Possible travel into Indonesia

According to Kurt E. Koch, Thomas the Apostle possibly travelled into Indonesia via India with Indian traders.[45]

Ancient oral tradition retained by the Guaraní tribes of Paraguay claims that Tomé Marangatu (The Good Thomas) or Paí Thome (Father Thomas), one of the twelve apostles, lived among the natives preaching the Gospel and doing miracles in the name of Jesus Christ. According to the Austrian missionary and writer, F.J. Martin Dobrizhoffer, who spoke with the warlord of the tribe:

..The Warlord (Cacique) said to me: "We don't need for priests, because Holy Father Thomé (Thomas the Apostle) walked on our homeland himself, and he taught us about the Truth, praying for us in the name of Jesus Christ.

— Quoted by Martin Dobrizhoffer: "Geschichte der Abiponer: eine berittenen und kriegerischen Nation in Paraquay", Volume 3, ch.II. Vienna (1784).[46]
Dobrizhoffer believed that it was "almost impossible" for that legend to be truthful, although "with the guidance of the Almighty Power of God", there was a chance for Thomas the Apostle to have arrived in Paraguayan lands.[47]

Almost 150 years prior to Dobrizhoffer's arrival to Paraguay, another Jesuit Missionary, F.J. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya recollected the same oral traditions from the Paraguayan tribes. In a very famous book he wrote:

. The paraguayan tribes they have this very curious tradition. They claim that a very holy man (Thomas the Apostle himself), whom they call "Paí Thome", lived amongst them and preached to them the Holy Truth, wandering and carrying a wooden cross on his back.

— Quoted by Antonio Ruiz de Montoya: Conquista espiritual hecha por los religiosos de la Compañía de Jesús en las provincias del Paraguay, Paraná, Uruguay y Tape", Chapter XVIII. Madrid (1639).[48]
Despite all these legends and traditions, no credible evidence exists about Saint Thomas the Apostle and his alleged journey to Paraguay and neighboring lands.

The sole recorded research done about the subject was during José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia's reign after the Independence of Paraguay. This is mentioned by Franz Wisner von Morgenstern, an Austro-Hungarian engineer who served in the Paraguayan armies prior and during the Paraguayan War. According to Von Morgenstern, some Paraguayan miners while working nearby some hills at the Caaguazú Department found some stones with ancient letters carved in them. Dictator Francia sent his finest experts to inspect those stones, and they concluded that the letters carved in those stones were Hebrew-like symbols, but they couldn't translate them nor figure out the exact date when those letters were carved.[49] No further recorded investigations exists, and according to Wisner, people believed that the letters were made by Saint Thomas the Apostle, following the tradition.

Shrine of Saint Thomas in Mylapore, 18th-century print

Holy Relics of Saint Thomas in Mar Mattai monastery

Relics of Thomas in the Cathedral of Ortona
Mylapore, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Edit
Traditional accounts say that the Apostle Thomas preached not only in Kerala but also in other parts of Southern India – and a few relics are still kept at San Thome Basilica in Chennai, Mylapore, India.[50] Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller and author of Description of the World, popularly known as Il Milione, is reputed to have visited Southern India in 1288 and 1292. The first date has been rejected as he was in China at the time, but the second date is generally accepted.[50] He also stopped at Quilon (Kollam) on the western Malabar Coast of India, where he met Syrian Christians and recorded their tradition of Saint Thomas and his tomb on the eastern Coromandel Coast of the country. Il Milione, the book he dictated on his return to Europe, was on its publication condemned by the Church as a collection of impious and improbable traveller's tales. It became very popular reading in medieval Europe and inspired Spanish and Portuguese sailors to seek out the fabulous (and possibly Christian) India described in it.

According to tradition, in 232 AD, the greater portion of relics of the Apostle Thomas are said to have been sent by an Indian king and brought from Mylapore to the city of Edessa, Mesopotamia, on which occasion his Syriac Acts were written.

The Indian king is named as "Mazdai" in Syriac sources, "Misdeos" and "Misdeus" in Greek and Latin sources respectively, which has been connected to the "Bazdeo" on the Kushan coinage of Vasudeva I, the transition between "M" and "B" being a current one in Classical sources for Indian names.[51] The martyrologist Rabban Sliba dedicated a special day to both the Indian king, his family, and St Thomas:

Coronatio Thomae apostoli et Misdeus rex Indiae, Johannes eus filius huisque mater Tertia (Coronation of Thomas the Apostle, and Misdeus king of India, together with his son Johannes (thought to be a latinization of Vizan) and his mother Tertia) Rabban Sliba[51]

In the 4th century, the martyrium erected over his burial place brought pilgrims to Edessa. In the 380s, Egeria described her visit in a letter she sent to her community of nuns at home (Itineraria Egeriae):[52]

We arrived at Edessa in the Name of Christ our God, and, on our arrival, we straightway repaired to the church and memorial of saint Thomas. There, according to custom, prayers were made and the other things that were customary in the holy places were done we read also some things concerning saint Thomas himself. The church there is very great, very beautiful and of new construction, well worthy to be the house of God, and as there was much that I desired to see, it was necessary for me to make a three days' stay there.

According to Saint Theodoret of Cyrrhus, the bones of Saint Thomas were transferred by Cyrus, Bishop of Edessa, from the martyrium outside of Edessa to a church in the south-west corner of the city on 22 August 394.[53]

In 441, the Magister militum per Orientem Anatolius donated a silver coffin to hold the relics.[54]

In 522 AD, Cosmas Indicopleustes (called the Alexandrian) visited the Malabar Coast. He is the first traveller who mentions Syrian Christians in Malabar, in his book Christian Topography. He mentions that in the town of "Kalliana" (Quilon or Kollam) there was a bishop who had been consecrated in Persia.

In 1144, the city was conquered by the Zengids and the shrine destroyed.[54]

Ortona's Basilica of Saint Thomas
The reputed relics of St. Thomas remained at Edessa until they were translated to Chios in 1258.[55] Some portion of the relics were later transported to the West, and now rest in the Cathedral of St. Thomas the Apostle in Ortona, Italy. However, the skull of Thomas is said to be at Monastery of Saint John the Theologian on the Greek island of Patmos.[56]

Ortona's three galleys reached the island of Chios in 1258, led by General Leone Acciaiuoli. Chios was considered the island where Saint Thomas, after the martyrdom in India, had been buried. A portion fought around the Peloponnese and the Aegean islands, the other in the sea lapping at the then Syrian coast. The three galleys of Ortona moved on the second front of the war and reached the island of Chios.

The tale is provided by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer of the 16th century of Ortona. After the looting, the navarca Ortona Leone went to pray in the main church of the island of Chios and was drawn to a chapel adorned and resplendent with lights. An elderly priest, through an interpreter informed him that in that oratory was venerated the Body of Saint Thomas the Apostle. Lion, filled with an unusual sweetness, gathered in deep prayer. At that moment a light hand twice invited him to come closer. The navarca Leone reached out and took a bone from the largest hole of the tombstone, on which were carved the Greek letters and a halo depicted a bishop from the waist up. He was the confirmation of what he had said the old priest and that you are indeed in the presence of the Apostle's body. He went back on the galley and planned the theft for the next night, along with fellow Ruggiero Grogno. They lifted the heavy gravestone and watched the underlying relics. The wrapped in snow-white cloths them laid in a wooden box (stored at Ortona to the looting of 1566) and brought them aboard the galley. Lion, then, along with other comrades, he returned again in the church, took the tombstone and took her away. Just the Chinardo admiral was aware of the precious cargo moved all the sailors of the Muslim faith on other ships and ordered him to take the route to Ortona.

Portal of Ortona, St Thomas' Basilica
He landed at the port of Ortona 6 September 1258. According to the story of De Lectis, he was informed the abbot Jacopo responsible for Ortona Church, which predispose full provision for hospitality felt and shared by all the people. Since then the body of the apostle and the gravestone are preserved in the crypt of the Basilica. In 1259 a parchment written in Bari by the court under John Peacock contracts, the presence of five witnesses, preserved in Ortona at the Diocesan Library, confirming the veracity of that event, reported, as mentioned, by Giambattista De Lectis, physician and writer Ortona of the 16th century.

The relics resisted both the Saracen looting of 1566, and the destruction of the Nazis in the famous battle of Ortona fought in late December 1943. The basilica was blown up because the belfry was considered a lookout point by the allies, coming by sea from San Vito Chietino. The relics, together with the treasure of Saint Thomas, were intended by the Germans to be sold, but the monks entombed them inside the bell tower, the only surviving part of the semi-ruined church.

Original Chios' tombstone of Thomas, brought in the crypt of Ortona's Basilica
The tombstone of Thomas, brought to Ortona from Chios along with the relics of the Apostle, is currently preserved in the crypt of St Thomas Basilica, behind the altar. The urn containing the bones instead is placed under the altar. It is the cover of a fake coffin, fairly widespread burial form in the early Christian world, as the top of a tomb of less expensive material. The plaque has an inscription and a bas-relief that refer, in many respects, to the Syro-Mesopotamian. Tombstone Thomas the Apostle on inclusion can be read, in Greek characters uncial, the expression 'osios thomas, that Saint Thomas. It can be dated from the point of view palaeographic and lexical to the 3rd–5th century, a time when the term osios is still used as a synonym of aghios in that holy is he that is in the grace of God and is inserted in the Church: the two vocabulary, therefore, indicate the Christians. In the particular case of Saint Thomas' plaque, then, the word osios can easily be the translation of the word Syriac mar (Lord), attributed in the ancient world, but also to the present day, is a saint to be a bishop.

The finger bones of Saint Thomas were discovered during restoration work at the Church of Saint Thomas in Mosul, Iraq in 1964,[57] and were housed there until the Fall of Mosul, after which the relics were transferred to the Monastery of Saint Matthew on 17 June 2014.[58][59]

By the command of an Indian King he was thrust through with Lances
A number of early Christian writings written during the centuries immediately following the first Ecumenical Council of 325 mention Thomas' mission.

The main source is the apocryphal Acts of Thomas, sometimes called by its full name The Acts of Judas Thomas, written circa 180–230 AD/CE,[60][61] These are generally regarded by various Christian religions as apocryphal, or even heretical. The two centuries that lapsed between the life of the apostle and the recording of this work cast doubt on their authenticity.

According to the text, following the Ascension, the Apostles cast lots as to where each should go and Thomas drew India. A man named Habban recruited (or enslaved) Thomas to work as a builder and architect, on behalf of king Gondophares, the ruler of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. The journey to India is described in detail. After a long period working at the royal court at ancient Taxila, Thomas ordained leaders for a church there.

He left in a chariot for a kingdom named Mazdai (possibly Muziris), in South India. The king, Misdeus (or Mizdeos), was infuriated when Thomas converted the queen Tertia, the king's son Juzanes, sister-in-law princess Mygdonia and her friend Markia. Misdeus led Saint Thomas outside the city and ordered four soldiers to take him to the nearby hill, where the soldiers speared Thomas and killed him. After Thomas' death, Syphorus was elected the first presbyter of Mazdai by the surviving converts, while Juzanes was the first deacon. (The names Misdeus, Tertia, Juzanes, Syphorus, Markia and Mygdonia (c.f. Mygdonia, a province of Mesopotamia) may suggest Greek descent or cultural influences.[62] Greek traders had long visited Muziris. Greek kingdoms in northern India and Bactria, founded by Alexander the Great, were vassals of the Indo-Parthians.[63][64])

According to some accounts, Vasudeva I, Kushan emperor circa 191 to 232 AD/CE, reputedly repatriated the bones of Thomas from Mylapore to Edessa.

3rd century Church represented: Syrian [65] "After the death of the Apostles there were Guides and Rulers in the Churches… They again at their deaths also committed and delivered to their disciples after them everything which they had received from the Apostles … (also what) Judas Thomas (had written) from India".[clarification needed]

India and all its own countries, and those bordering on it, even to the farther sea, received the Apostle's hand of Priesthood from Judas Thomas, who was Guide and Ruler in the Church which he built and ministered there". In what follows "the whole Persia of the Assyrians and Medes, and of the countries round about Babylon… even to the borders of the Indians and even to the country of Gog and Magog" are said to have received the Apostles' Hand of Priesthood from Aggaeus the disciple of Addaeus[66]

3rd century (185–254?), quoted in Eusebius Church represented: Alexandrian/ Greek Biographical. Christian Philosopher, b-Egypt, Origen taught with great acclaim in Alexandria and then in Caesarea.[67] He is the first known writer to record the casting of lots by the Apostles. Origen's original work has been lost, but his statement about Parthia falling to Thomas has been preserved by Eusebius. "Origen, in the third chapter of his Commentary on Genesis, says that, according to tradition, Thomas's allotted field of labour was Parthia".[68]

Eusebius of Caesarea: 4th century (died 340) Church Represented: Alexandrian/Greek Biographical [69] Quoting Origen, Eusebius says: "When the holy Apostles and disciples of our Saviour were scattered over all the world, Thomas, so the tradition has it, obtained as his portion Parthia…"[70] "Judas, who is also called Thomas" has a role in the legend of king Abgar of Edessa (Urfa), for having sent Thaddaeus to preach in Edessa after the Ascension (Eusebius, Historia ecclesiae 1.13 III.1 Ephrem the Syrian also recounts this legend.)

Ephrem: 4th century Church Represented: Syrian Biographical [71] Many devotional hymns composed by St. Ephraem bear witness to the Edessan Church's strong conviction concerning St. Thomas's Indian Apostolate. There the devil speaks of Saint Thomas as "the Apostle I slew in India". Also "The merchant brought the bones" to Edessa.

Another hymn eulogizing Saint Thomas reads "The bones the merchant hath brought". "In his several journeyings to India/ And thence on his return/ All riches/ which there he found/ Dirt in his eyes he did repute when to thy sacred bones compared". In yet another hymn Ephrem speaks of the mission of Thomas: "The earth darkened with sacrifices' fumes to illuminate", "a land of people dark fell to thy lot", "a tainted land Thomas has purified" "India's dark night" was "flooded with light" by Thomas.[72]

Gregory of Nazianzus: 4th century (died 389) Church Represented: Alexandrian. Biographical Note: Gregory of Nazianzus was born AD 330, consecrated a bishop by his friend St. Basil in 372 his father, the Bishop of Nazianzus, induced him to share his charge. In 379 the people of Constantinople called him to be their bishop. By the Orthodox Church he is emphatically called "the Theologian".[73] "What? were not the Apostles strangers amidst the many nations and countries over which they spread themselves? … Peter indeed may have belonged to Judea but what had Paul in common with the gentiles, Luke with Achaia, Andrew with Epirus, John with Ephesus, Thomas with India, Mark with Italy?"[74]

4th century (died 397) Church Represented: Western. Biographical Note: Saint Ambrose was thoroughly acquainted with the Greek and Latin Classics, and had a good deal of information on India and Indians. He speaks of the Gymnosophists of India, the Indian Ocean, the river Ganges etc., a number of times.[75] "This admitted of the Apostles being sent without delay according to the saying of our Lord Jesus… Even those Kingdoms which were shut out by rugged mountains became accessible to them, as India to Thomas, Persia to Matthew. "[76]

Saint Gregory of Tours (died 594) Saint Gregory's testimony: "Thomas the Apostle, according to the narrative of his martyrdom is stated to have suffered in India. His holy remains (corpus), after a long interval of time, were removed to the city of Edessa in Syria and there interred. In that part of India where they first rested, stand a monastery and a church of striking dimensions, elaborately adorned and designed. This Theodore, who had been to the place, narrated to us."[77]

Let none read the gospel according to Thomas, for it is the work, not of one of the twelve apostles, but of one of Mani's three wicked disciples.

— Cyril of Jerusalem, Cathechesis V (4th century)
In the first two centuries of the Christian era, a number of writings were circulated. It is unclear now why Thomas was seen as an authority for doctrine, although this belief is documented in Gnostic groups as early as the Pistis Sophia. In that Gnostic work, Mary Magdalene (one of the disciples) says:

Now at this time, my Lord, hear, so that I speak openly, for thou hast said to us "He who has ears to hear, let him hear:" Concerning the word which thou didst say to Philip: "Thou and Thomas and Matthew are the three to whom it has been given… to write every word of the Kingdom of the Light, and to bear witness to them" hear now that I give the interpretation of these words. It is this which thy light-power once prophesied through Moses: "Through two and three witnesses everything will be established. The three witnesses are Philip and Thomas and Matthew"

— Pistis Sophia 1:43
An early, non-Gnostic tradition may lie behind this statement, which also emphasizes the primacy of the Gospel of Matthew in its Aramaic form, over the other canonical three.

Besides the Acts of Thomas there was a widely circulated Infancy Gospel of Thomas probably written in the later 2nd century, and probably also in Syria, which relates the miraculous events and prodigies of Jesus' boyhood. This is the document which tells for the first time the familiar legend of the twelve sparrows which Jesus, at the age of five, fashioned from clay on the Sabbath day, which took wing and flew away. The earliest manuscript of this work is a 6th-century one in Syriac. This gospel was first referred to by Irenaeus Ron Cameron notes: "In his citation, Irenaeus first quotes a non-canonical story that circulated about the childhood of Jesus and then goes directly on to quote a passage from the infancy narrative of the Gospel of Luke.[78] Since the Infancy Gospel of Thomas records both of these stories, in relative close proximity to one another, it is possible that the apocryphal writing cited by Irenaeus is, in fact, what is now known as the Infancy Gospel of Thomas. Because of the complexities of the manuscript tradition, however, there is no certainty as to when the stories of the Infancy Gospel of Thomas began to be written down."

The best known in modern times of these documents is the "sayings" document that is being called the Gospel of Thomas, a noncanonical work whose date is disputed. The opening line claims it is the work of "Didymos Judas Thomas" – whose identity is unknown. This work was discovered in a Coptic translation in 1945 at the Egyptian village of Nag Hammadi, near the site of the monastery of Chenoboskion. Once the Coptic text was published, scholars recognized that an earlier Greek translation had been published from fragments of papyrus found at Oxyrhynchus in the 1890s.

Saint Thomas Christian cross
In the 16th-century work Jornada, Antonio Gouvea writes of ornate crosses known as Saint Thomas Crosses. It is also known as Nasrani Menorah[79] or Mar Thoma Sleeva.[80] These crosses are believed to date from the 6th century as per the tradition and are found in a number of churches in Kerala, Mylapore and Goa. Jornada is the oldest known written document to refer to this type of cross as a St. Thomas Cross. Gouvea also writes about the veneration of the Cross at Cranganore, referring to the cross as "Cross of Christians". It is widely perceived as the symbol of Saint Thomas Christians.

There are several interpretations of the Nasrani symbol. The interpretation based on Christian Jewish tradition assumes that its design was based on Jewish menorah, an ancient symbol of the Hebrews, which consists of seven branched lamp stand (candelabra).[81] The interpretation based on local culture states that the Cross without the figure of Jesus and with flowery arms symbolizing "joyfulness" points to the resurrection theology of Saint Paul the Holy Spirit on the top represents the role of Holy Spirit in the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The lotus symbolizing Buddhism and the Cross over it shows that Christianity was established in the land of Buddha. The three steps indicate Calvary and the rivulets, channels of Grace flowing from the Cross.[82]


Ships of the U.S. Navy, 1940-1945

For information on the doctrine for the employment of submarines in the war,
see Current Doctrine: Submarines (USF 25(A).
For WWII Fleet Submarine technical manuals,
see Navy Manuals and Documents Online

United States Submarine Losses--World War II

Submarines are group by class below:

O Type:

  • Displacement: 480 tons surfaced, 624 tons submerged
  • Length: 172'4"
  • Beam: 17'6"
  • Draft: 13'3"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/23, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 8 18" torpedoes
  • Complement: 33
  • Diesel engines, 880 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 740 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 4,000 at 11 knots surfaced 50 miles at 5 knots submerged
  • Built by Bethlehem

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-63 O-2 1918 Built at Puget Sound Navy Yard
SS-64 O-3 1918
SS-65 O-4 1918
SS-67 O-6 1918
SS-68 O-7 1918
SS-69 O-8 1918
SS-70 O-9 1918 20Jun41, off the Isle of Shoals
SS-71 O-10 1918

R Type:

  • Displacement: 530 tons surfaced, 680 tons submerged
  • Length: 186'1"
  • Beam: 17'6"
  • Draft: 13'8"
  • Speed: 13.5 knots surfaced, 10.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 8 18" torpedoes
  • Complement: 34
  • Diesel engines, 880 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 934 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 3,700 miles at 10 knots surfaced 100 miles at 10 knots submerged
  • Built at Bethlehem Yards

(*: Lend-Lease to U.K.)

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-78 R-1 1918
SS-79 R-2 1919
SS-80 R-3 *1919
SS-81 R-4 1919
SS-82 R-5 1919
SS-83 R-6 1919
SS-85 R-8 1919
SS-86 R-9 1919
SS-87 R-10 1919
SS-88 R-11 1919
SS-89 R-12 1919 12 Jun 43 unknown, E. Coast
SS-90 R-13 1919
SS-91 R-14 1919
SS-92 R-15 1918
SS-93 R-16 1918
SS-94 R-17 *1918
SS-95 R-18 1918
SS-96 R-19 *1918
SS-97 R-20 1919

S-1 Type:

  • Displacement: 800 tons surfaced, 1062 tons submerged
  • Length: 219'3"
  • Beam: 20'6"
  • Draft: 15'1"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 12-14 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 50
  • Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

(*: Lend-Lease to U.K.)

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-105 S-1 *1920
SS-123 S-18 1924
SS-125 S-20 1922
SS-126 S-21 *1923
SS-127 S-22 *1924
SS-128 S-23 1923
SS-129 S-24 *1923
SS-130 S-25 *1923
SS-131 S-26 1923 : 25 Jan 42 accidentally rammed and sunk by PC-460 near Panama
SS-132 S-27 1924 : 19 Jun 42 swept onto reefs in the Aleutians
SS-133 S-28 1923 : 4 Jul 44 accident, Hawaii
SS-134 S-29 *1924
SS-135 S-30 1920
SS-136 S-31 1923
SS-137 S-32 1923
SS-138 S-33 1922
SS-139 S-34 1923
SS-140 S-35 1923
SS-141 S-36 1923 : Mar 42 grounded near Java
SS-142 S-37 1923
SS-143 S-38 1923
SS-144 S-39 1923 : 14 Aug 42 grounded, Rossell Island
SS-145 S-40 1923
SS-146 S-41 1924

S-11 Type:

  • Displacement: 790 tons surfaced, 1092 tons submerged
  • Length: 231'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 12'6"
  • Speed: 15 knots surfaced, 10.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 44
  • Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1200 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-116 S-11 19
SS-117 S-12 19
SS-118 S-13 19
SS-119 S-14 1921
SS-120 S-15 1921
SS-121 S-16 1920
SS-122 S-17 1921

S-42 Type:

  • Displacement: 850 tons surfaced, 1126 tons submerged
  • Length: 225'3"
  • Beam: 20'6"
  • Draft: 15'3"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 51
  • Diesel engines, 1200 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-153 S-42 1924
SS-154 S-43 1924
SS-155 S-44 1925 : 8 Oct 43 gunfire, in the Aleutians
SS-156 S-45 1925
SS-157 S-46 1925
SS-158 S-47 1925

S-48 Type:

  • Displacement: 1000 tons surfaced, 1458 tons submerged
  • Length: 267'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 10'11"
  • Speed: 14.5 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow and 1 stern(?) torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 51
  • Diesel engines, 2000 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1500 h.p. submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-159 S-48 1922

B Type:

  • Displacement: 2000 tons surfaced, 2506 tons submerged
  • Length: 341'6"
  • Beam: 27'1"
  • Draft: 14'7"
  • Speed: 18 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 5"/51, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, 6700 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2400 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 10,000 miles at 11 knots surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-163 Barracuda 1925
SS-164 Bass 1925
SS-165 Bonita 1926

A Type:

  • Mine-Laying Submarine:
  • Displacement: 2170 tons surfaced, 4080 tons submerged
  • Length: 381'
  • Beam: 33'10"
  • Draft: 15'4"
  • Speed: 15 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 2 6"/53, 24 21" bow torpedo tubes, 60 mines
  • Complement: 89
  • Diesel engines, 3175 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2400 h.p. submerged
  • Built at Portsmouth Navy Yard

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SM-1 Argonaut 1928
1942

Converted to Transport Submarine APS-1
10Jan43 depth charges and gunfire in S.W. Pacific

Nautilus Class:

  • Displacement: 2730 tons surfaced, 3960 tons submerged
  • Length: 371'
  • Beam: 33'3"
  • Draft: 15'9"
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8.5 knots submerged
  • Armament: 2 6"/53, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 100
  • Diesel engines, 5450 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 2540 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 18,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-167 Narwhal 1930
SS-168 Nautilus 1930

Dolphin Class:

  • Displacement: 1540 tons surfaced, 2215 tons submerged
  • Length: 319'1"
  • Beam: 27'10"
  • Draft: 13'
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 4"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 77
  • Diesel engines, 4250 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1750 h.p. submerged
  • Built at Portsmouth Navy Yard

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-169 Dolphin 1932

Cachalot Class:

  • Displacement: 1110-1130 tons surfaced, 1650 tons submerged
  • Length: 271'9"'
  • Beam: 24'9"
  • Draft: 12'10"
  • Speed: 17 knots surfaced, 8 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 55
  • Diesel engines, 3100 h.p. surfaced/electric motors, 1600 h.p. submerged
  • Range: 10,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-170 Cachalot 1933
SS-171 Cuttlefish 1934

Porpoise Class:

P-1 Type:

  • Displacement: 1310 tons surfaced, 1934 tons submerged
  • Length: 301'
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-173 Pike 1935
SS-172 Porpoise 1935

P-3 Type:

  • Displacement: 1315 tons surfaced, 1968 tons submerged
  • Length: 298'
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-174 Shark 1936 : Mar 42 off Celebes
SS-175 Tarpon 1936

P-5 Type:

  • Displacement: 1,330 tons surfaced, 1,998 tons submerged
  • Length: 300'6"
  • Beam: 25'
  • Draft: 13'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 73
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-176 Perch 1936 : Mar 42 Java Sea
SS-178 Permit 1937
SS-177 Pickerel 1937 : < 15 Aug 43 unknown causes
SS-179 Plunger 1936
SS-180 Pollack 1937
SS-181 Pompano 1937 : 5 Jan 44 unknown causes

Salmon Class:

  • Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,198 tons submerged
  • Length: 298'
  • Beam: 26'
  • Draft: 14'3"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 75
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • Range: 15,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-182 Salmon 1938
SS-183 Seal 1938
SS-184 Skipjack 1938
SS-185 Snapper 1937
SS-186 Stingray 1938
SS-187 Sturgeon 1938

Sargo Class:

  • Displacement: 1,450 tons surfaced, 2,350 tons submerged
  • Length: 300'
  • Beam: 27'
  • Draft: 13'9"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 78
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • Range: 15,000 miles surfaced

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-192 Sailfish
(ex-Squalus)
1939
SS-188 Sargo 1939
SS-189 Saury 1939
SS-191 Sculpin 1939 : 19 Nov 43 gunfire from IJN Yamagumo near Truk
SS-194 Seadragon 1939
SS-195 Sealion 1939 : 10 Dec 41 bombs in Manila Bay
SS-196 Searaven 1939
SS-197 Seawolf 1939 : 3 Oct 44 hedgehog attack from Richard M. Rowell
SS-190 Spearfish 1939
SS-193 Swordfish 1939 : 12 Jan 45 depth charge(?) off Okinawa

Tambor Class:

  • Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2198 tons submerged
  • Length: 308'
  • Beam: 27'
  • Draft: 13'9"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 75
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-198 Tambor 1940
SS-199 Tautog 1940
SS-200 Thresher 1940
SS-201 Triton 1940 : < 22 Jul 43 unknown causes
SS-202 Trout 1940 : 29 Feb 44 depth charge SSE of Okinawa
SS-203 Tuna 1941

Mackerel Class:

  • Displacement: 825 tons surfaced, 1179 tons submerged
  • Length: 253'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 11'9"
  • Speed: 16 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 4 bow and 2 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 42
  • Diesel engines/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-204 Mackerel 1941
SS-205 Marlin 1941

Gar Class:

  • Displacement: 1475 tons surfaced, 2000(?) tons submerged
  • Length: 253'
  • Beam: 21'6"
  • Draft: 11'9"
  • Speed: 21 knots surfaced, 11 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 85
  • Diesel engines, 6500 h.p. surfaced/electric motors

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-206 Gar 1941
SS-207 Grampus 1941 : 5 Mar 43 unknown, near Kula Gulf
SS-208 Grayback 1941 : 27 Feb 44 air attack(?) between Luzon and Formosa
SS-209 Grayling 1941 : < 24 Dec 43 unknown causes
SS-210 Grenadier 1941 : < 14 Sep 43 unknown causes
SS-211 Gudgeon 1941 : Apr 44 unknown causes out of Pearl Harbor

Gato Class:

  • Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'
  • Beam: 27'3"
  • Draft: 16'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes (loaded tubes plus reloads: 10 forward, 4 aft)
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, surfaced/electric motors, submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-218 Albacore 1942 : 7 Nov 44? mine, off Hokkaido?
SS-219 Amberjack 1942 : 16 Feb 43 IJN depth charges near Rabaul
SS-240 Angler 1943 ?
SS-220 Barb 1942
SS-241 Bashaw 1943
SS-221 Blackfish 1942
SS-222 Bluefish 1943
SS-242 Bluegill 1943
SS-223 Bonefish 1943 : 19 Jun 45 Toyama Wan, Honshu
SS-243 Bream 1944
SS-244 Cavalla 1944
SS-225 Cero 1943
SS-245 Cobia 1944
SS-224 Cod 1943
SS-226 Corvina 1943 : 16 Nov 43 torpedoed by I-176 SW of Truk
SS-246 Croaker 1944
SS-247 Dace 1943
SS-227 Darter 1943 : 24 Oct 44 grounded in Palawan Passage then bombed
SS-248 Dorado 1943 : 12 Oct 43 bombed by U.S. Mariner in Caribbean
SS-228 Drum 1941
SS-230 Finback 1942
SS-249 Flasher 1943
SS-250 Flier 1943 : 19 Sep 44 unknown causes
SS-251 Flounder 1943
SS-229 Flying Fish 1941
SS-252 Gabilan 1943
SS-212 Gato 1941
SS-213 Greenling 1942
SS-214 Grouper 1942
SS-215 Growler 1942 : 8 Nov 44 reported missing after attacking convoy SW of Luzon (depth charges)?
SS-216 Grunion 1942 : < 5 Oct 42 unknown causes
SS-217 Guardfish 1942
SS-253 Gunnel 1942
SS-254 Gurnard 1942
SS-255 Haddo 1942
SS-231 Haddock 1942
SS-256 Hake 1942
SS-232 Halibut 1942
SS-257 Harder 1942 : 24 Aug 44 depth charges, SW Pacific
SS-233 Herring 1942 : 1 Jun 44 shore battery in the Kuriles
SS-258 Hoe 1942
SS-259 Jack 1943
SS-234 Kingfish 1942
SS-260 Lapon 1943
SS-261 Mingo 1943
SS-262 Muskallunge 1943
SS-263 Paddle 1943
SS-264 Pargo 1943
SS-265 Peto 1942
SS-266 Pogy 1943
SS-267 Pompon 1943
SS-268 Puffer 1943
SS-269 Rasher 1943
SS-270 Raton 1943
SS-271 Ray 1943
SS-272 Redfin 1943
SS-273 Robalo 1943 : 26 Jul 44 battery explosion? off Palawan
SS-274 Rock 1943
SS-275 Runner 1942 : < 27 Oct 43 unknown causes
SS-276 Sawfish 1942
SS-277 Scamp 1942 : 11 Nov 44? depth charge, S. of Tokyo Bay?
SS-278 Scorpion 1942 : < 22 Mar 44 unknown causes
SS-235 Shad 1942
SS-236 Silversides 1941
SS-279 Snook 1942 : <: 4 Aug 45 unknown causes
SS-280 Steelhead 1942
SS-281 Sunfish 1942
SS-283 Tinosa 1943
SS-237 Trigger 1942 : 28 Mar 45 depth charge, off Okinawa
SS-284 Tullibee 1943 : 26 Mar 44 circular return of own torpedo
SS-282 Tunny 1942
SS-238 Wahoo 1942 : < 2 Dec 43 unknown causes
SS-239 Whale 1942

Balao Class:

  • Displacement: 1526 tons surfaced, 2424 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'
  • Beam: 27'3"
  • Draft: 16'10"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 3"/50 or 1 4"/50 or 1 5"/50, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 80
  • Diesel engines, surfaced/electric motors, submerged

No. Name Comm. Notes (: Lost)
SS-308 Apogon 1943
SS-311 Archerfish 1943
SS-309 Aspro 1943
SS-403 Atule 1944
SS-285 Balao 1943
SS-385 Bang 1943
SS-316 Barbel 1944 : 4 Feb 45 air attack, SW of Palawan
SS-317 Barbero 1944
SS-310 Batfish 1943
SS-318 Baya 1944
SS-319 Becuna 1944
SS-320 Bergall 1944
SS-321 Besugo 1944
SS-286 Billfish 1943
SS-322 Blackfin 1944
SS-324 Blenny 1944
SS-325 Blower 1944
SS-326 Blueback 1944
SS-327 Boarfish 1944
SS-287 Bowfin 1943
SS-330 Brill 1944
SS-331 Bugara 1944
SS-332 Bullhead 1944 : 6 Aug 45 air attack, off Bali
SS-333 Bumper 1944
SS-312 Burrfish 1943
SS-334 Cabezon 1944
SS-288 Cabrilla 1943
SS-323 Caiman 1944
SS-289 Capelin 1943 : < 18 Mar 44 unknown causes
SS-336 Capitaine 1945
SS-337 Carbonero 1945
SS-338 Carp 1945
SS-339 Catfish 1945
SS-328 Charr 1944
SS-341 Chivo 1945
SS-342 Chopper 1945
SS-329 Chub 1944
SS-290 Cisco 1943 : < 8 Feb 44 unknown causes
SS-343 Clamagore 1945
SS-344 Cobbler 1945
SS-345 Cochino 1945
SS-346 Corporal 1945
SS-291 Crevalle 1943
SS-347 Cubera 1945
SS-348 Cusk 1946
SS-335 Dentuda 1944
SS-292 Devilfish 1944
SS-350 Dogfish 1945
SS-293 Dragonet 1944
SS-340 Entemedor 1945
SS-294 Escolar 1944 : < 28 Feb 45 unknown causes
SS-361 Golet 1943 : < 23 Oct 44 unknown causes
SS-362 Guavina 1943
SS-363 Guitaro 1944
SS-295 Hackleback 1944
SS-364 Hammerhead 1944
SS-365 Hardhead 1944
SS-366 Hawkbill 1944
SS-367 Icefish 1944
SS-368 Jallao 1944
SS-369 Kete 1944 : Mar 45 by IJN submarine?
SS-370 Kraken 1944
SS-371 Lagarto 1944 : 3 May 45 depth-charged by IJN minelayer Hatsutaka ?
SS-372 Lamprey 1944
SS-296 Lancetfish 1945
SS-297 Ling 1945
SS-298 Lionfish 1944
SS-373 Lizardfish 1944
SS-374 Loggerhead 1945
SS-375 Macabi 1945
SS-299 Manta 1944
SS-376 Mapiro 1945
SS-377 Menhaden 1945
SS-378 Mero 1945
SS-300 Moray 1945
SS-383 Pampanito 1943
SS-384 Parche 1943
SS-313 Perch 1944
SS-382 Picuda 1943
SS-386 Pilotfish 1943
SS-387 Pintado 1944
SS-388 Pipefish 1944
SS-409 Piper 1944
SS-389 Piranha 1944
SS-390 Plaice 1944
SS-391 Pomfret 1944
SS-393 Queenfish 1944
SS-394 Razorback 1944
SS-395 Redfish 1944
SS-301 Roncador 1945
SS-396 Ronquil 1944
SS-302 Sabalo 1945
SS-303 Sablefish 1945
SS-381 Sand Lance 1943
SS-397 Scarbbardfish 1944
SS-399 Sea Cat 1944
SS-400 Sea Devil 1944
SS-401 Sea Dog 1944
SS-402 Sea Fox 1944
SS-405 Sea Owl 1944
SS-406 Sea Poacher 1944
SS-407 Sea Robin 1944
SS-304 Seahorse 1943
SS-315 Sealion 1944
SS-398 Segundo 1944
SS-408 Sennet 1944
SS-314 Shark 1944 : 24 Oct 44 depth charge, between Hainan and Bashi Channel
SS-305 Skate 1943
SS-411 Spadefish 1944
SS-404 Spikefish 1944
SS-413 Spot 1944
SS-414 Springer 1944
SS-392 Sterlet 1944
SS-415 Stickleback 1945
SS-306 Tang 1943 : 25 Oct 44 circular return of own torpedo in the Formosa Channel
SS-410 Threadfin 1944
SS-307 Tilefish 1943
SS-416 Tiru 1945
SS-412 Trepang 1944

Tench Class:

  • Displacement: 1570 tons surfaced, 2414 tons submerged
  • Length: 311'8"
  • Beam: 27'4"
  • Draft: 16'5"
  • Speed: 20 knots surfaced, 9 knots submerged
  • Armament: 1 5"/25, 6 bow and 4 stern torpedo tubes, 24 21" torpedoes
  • Complement: 81
  • Diesel engines/electric motors
  • FleetSubmarine.Com --comprehensive resource for US submarines in WWII
  • Full Fathom Five: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan
  • U.S. Navy Submarine Centennial
  • Deep Domain from Neal Stevens
  • The Silent Service Connection
  • Ron Martini's Web PagesMany submarine links
  • Subnet: Cyberspace Association of United States Submariners (CAUSS)
  • World War II "Silent-Service"
  • Naval Submarine League
  • U.S. Submarine Veterans Inc.
  • Submarine Veterans of World War II
  • All Submarines on Public Display (worldwide)
  • US Submarines Lost in World War II -- including crew lists

Return to HyperWar: World War II on the World Wide Web Last updated: 25 December 2008


Watch the video: At the Gates of Moscow - Furthest German Advance 1941 (June 2022).


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